Colombia Proclaims Independence from Spain (1810)
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Colombia Proclaims Independence from Spain (1810)

No longer to be at a loss for phrases with Columbia (disambiguation). Republic of Colombia Motto: “Libertad y Orden” (Spanish)”Freedom and Show” Capitaland biggest metropolis Bogotá4°35′N Seventy four°Four′W / Four.583°N Seventy four.067°W Legit languages Spanisha Known regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English is also official within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina. Ethnic groups (2005[1][2]) Demonym Colombian Authorities Unitary presidential constitutional republic Juan Manuel Santos Óscar Naranjo • President of the Congress Mauricio Lizcano • President of the Supreme Court docket Margarita Cabello Blanco Legislature Congress Senate Chamber of Representatives Independence from Spain • Declared 20 July 1810 • Known 7 August 1819 • Final unitarisation 1886 Four July 1991 Home • Total 1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th) • Water (%) eight.eight (seventeenth) Inhabitants • June 2017 estimate forty 9,829,325[3] (28th) • 2005 census forty two,888,592[3] • Density forty.Seventy four/km2 (105.5/sq mi) (173rd) GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate • Total $720.151 billion[4] (thirty first) • Per capita $14,609[4] GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate • Total $306.439 billion[4] (thirty 2nd) • Per capita $6,216[4] Gini (2016)  51.7[5]high HDI (2015)  zero.727[6]high · ninety fifth Currency Peso (COP) Time zone COT (UTC−5b) Date layout dd−mm−yyyy (CE) Drives on the beautiful Calling code +fifty seven ISO 3166 code CO Cyber net TLD .co Even though the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken within the nation by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each and every is also official in its be pleased territory.[7] English is also official within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[8] The official Colombian time [9] is controlled and coordinated by the Nationwide Institute of Metrology.[10] Colombia ( kə-LUM-biə or kə-LOM-biə; Spanish: [koˈlombja]), formally the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: ),[Note 1] is a sovereign advise largely located within the northwest of South The US, with territories in Central The US. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru.[11] It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.[12] It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia used to be at the beginning inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most appropriate the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish predicament foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1499 and within the first half of of the sixteenth century initiated a duration of conquest and colonization, finally creating the New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santafé de Bogotá. Independence from Spain used to be received in 1819, but by 1830 the “Gran Colombia” Federation used to be dissolved. What’s now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The unique nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the US of Colombia (1863), earlier than the Republic of Colombia used to be at final declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the Sixties, the nation has suffered from an asymmetric low-depth armed war, which escalated within the 1990s but then lowered from 2005 onward.[13] Colombia is rarely any doubt one of many most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries within the enviornment, and thereby possesses a prosperous cultural heritage. The metropolis centres are mostly located within the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it is rarely any doubt one of many enviornment’s 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of those per sq. kilometer.[14] Colombia is a heart energy and a regional actor with the fourth-biggest economy in Latin The US,[4] is fragment of the CIVETS neighborhood of six leading emerging markets and is a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and other international organizations.[15] Colombia has a utterly different economy with macroeconomic steadiness and superior development possibilities one day.[16][17] Etymology The name “Colombia” is derived from the final name of Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It used to be conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the total New World, but in particular to those parts underneath Spanish and Portuguese rule. The name used to be later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, shaped from the territories of the previous Viceroyalty of New Granada (widespread-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).[18] When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as impartial states, the faded Division of Cundinamarca adopted the name “Republic of New Granada”. New Granada formally changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name used to be all over again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, earlier than at final adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.[18] To talk about with this nation, the Colombian executive makes use of the phrases Colombia and República de Colombia. History Pre-Columbian know-how San Agustín Archaeological Park Owing to its region, the present territory of Colombia used to be a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo net sites within the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (Sixty two mi) southwest of Bogotá.[19] These net sites date from the Paleoindian duration (18,000–8000 BCE). At Puerto Hormiga and other net sites, traces from the Aged Length (~8000–2000 BCE) comprise been found. Vestiges conceal that there used to be also early occupation within the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. The oldest pottery present within the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE.[20] Muisca raft. The figure refers back to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. Indigenous other folks inhabited the territory that is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes on the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama net sites come present-day Bogotá traded with each and every other and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley.[21] Between 5000 and one thousand BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; mounted settlements were established, and pottery regarded. Starting build within the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political machine of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of energy headed by caciques. The Muisca inhabited mainly the space of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) where they shaped the Muisca Confederation. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and in particular rock salt with neighboring countries. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia within the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.[22] The Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.[23] Many of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of every and every indigenous neighborhood used to be utterly different. Some groups of indigenous other folks equivalent to the Caribs lived in a advise of permanent battle, but others had much less bellicose attitudes.[24] The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest fragment of the nation.[25] Spanish conquest Routes of exploration and conquest. Alonso de Ojeda (who had sailed with Columbus) reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499.[26][27] Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration of the Caribbean hover in 1500.[28]Christopher Columbus navigated come the Caribbean in 1502.[29] In 1508, Vasco Núñez de Balboa accompanied an expedition to the territory through the space of Gulf of Urabá they in most cases founded the town of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in 1510, the first stable settlement on the continent. [Note 2][30] Santa Marta used to be founded in 1525,[31] and Cartagena in 1533.[32] Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada led an expedition to the inner in April 1536, and christened the districts by which he handed “New Kingdom of Granada”. In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital come the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it “Santa Fe”. The name at this time received a suffix and used to be called Santa Fe de Bogotá.[33][34] Two other distinguished journeys by early conquistadors to the inner took predicament within the same duration. Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537;[35] from 1536 to 1539, German conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a glimpse for El Dorado, the “metropolis of gold”.[36][37] The legend and the gold would play a pivotal plot in luring the Spanish and other Europeans to New Granada for the duration of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.[38] The conquistadors made frequent alliances with the enemies of utterly different indigenous communities. Indigenous allies were valuable to conquest, as well to to creating and sustaining empire.[39] Indigenous peoples in New Granada experienced a decline in population as a consequence of conquest as well to Eurasian ailments, equivalent to smallpox, to which they had no immunity.[40][41] With the possibility that the land used to be deserted, the Spanish Crown supplied properties to all participants challenging on colonise territories creating substantial farms and possession of mines.[42][43][44] In the sixteenth century, the nautical science in Spain reached a huge pattern on legend of reasonably a pair of scientific figures of the Casa de Contratación and nautical science used to be an very valuable pillar of the Iberian growth.[45] Colonial duration In 1542, the space of New Granada, alongside with all other Spanish possessions in South The US, became fragment of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital at Lima.[46] In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-General of New Granada within the viceroyalty. In 1549, the Royal Audiencia used to be created by a royal decree, and New Granada used to be ruled by the Royal Audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which for the time being comprised the provinces of Santa Marta, Rio de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena.[47] But valuable selections were taken from the colony to Spain by the Council of the Indies.[48][49] In the sixteenth century, Europeans began to carry slaves from Africa. Spain used to be the handiest European energy that will perchance well now not establish factories in Africa to buy slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento machine, awarding retailers (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to trade enslaved other folks to their in one other nation territories.[51][52] Also there were other folks that defended human rights and freedom of oppressed peoples.[Note 3][Note 4] The indigenous peoples is presumably now not enslaved because they were legally topics of the Spanish Crown [57] and to give protection to the indigenous peoples, several varieties of land possession and law were established: resguardos, encomiendas and haciendas.[42][43][44] Many intellectual leaders of the independence course of participated within the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada. In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada used to be at the beginning created, and then it used to be snappy eliminated, to at final be reestablished in 1739. The Viceroyalty had Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. This Viceroyalty incorporated any other provinces of northwestern South The US which had previously been underneath the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to as of late’s Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. So, Bogotá became no doubt one of many predominant administrative centers of the Spanish possessions within the New World, alongside with Lima and Mexico City, even though it remained considerably backward in contrast to those two cities in several economic and logistical systems.[58][59] After Enormous Britain declared battle on Spain in 1739, Cartagena snappy became the British forces’ top aim but an upset Spanish victory for the duration of the Battle of Jenkins’ Ear, a battle with Enormous Britain for economic control of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance within the Caribbean except the Seven Years’ Battle.[50][60] The 18th-century priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis used to be delegated by Viceroy Antonio Caballero y Góngora to conduct a record of the nature of the New Granada. Started in 1783, this became is named the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which labeled vegetation, natural world and founded the first tall observatory within the metropolis of Santa Fe de Bogotá.[61] In July 1801 the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reached Santa Fe de Bogotá where he met with Mutis. As well, historical figures all the diagram through of independence in New Granada emerged from the expedition as the astronomer Francisco José de Caldas, the scientist Francisco Antonio Zea, the zoologist Jorge Tadeo Lozano and the painter Salvador Rizo.[62][63] Independence The Battle of Boyacá used to be the decisive fight which would develop particular the success of the liberation marketing campaign of New Granada. Since the beginning of the sessions of conquest and colonization, there were several revolt movements against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too archaic to alternate the final announce. The final individual who sought outright independence from Spain sprang up round 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue (present-day Haiti) in 1804, which supplied some toughen to an eventual leader of this insurrection: Simón Bolívar. Francisco de Paula Santander also would play a decisive plot.[64][65][66] The Socorro Province used to be the plot of the genesis of the independence course of. A motion used to be initiated by Antonio Nariño, who adversarial Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the Viceroyalty.[67]Cartagena became impartial in November 1811.[68] In 1811 the United Provinces of New Granada were proclaimed, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio.[69][70] The emergence of two particular ideological currents among the patriots (federalism and centralism) gave upward push to a duration of instability.[71] Almost at the moment after the Napoleonic Wars ended, Ferdinand VII, now not too long ago restored to the throne in Spain, made up our minds to ship militia forces to retake most of northern South The US. The viceroyalty used to be restored underneath the represent of Juan Sámano, whose regime punished those who participated within the patriotic movements, ignoring the political nuances of the juntas.[72] The retribution stoked renewed insurrection, which, blended with a weakened Spain, made that you just’re going to be ready to believe a a hit insurrection led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who at final proclaimed independence in 1819.[73][74] The professional-Spanish resistance used to be defeated in 1822 within the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela.[75][76][77] The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia, organized as a union of the present territories of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, parts of Guyana and Brazil and north of Marañón River.[78] The Congress of Cúcuta in 1821 adopted a constitution for the unique Republic.[79][80] Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander used to be made Vice President.[81] Nonetheless, the unique republic used to be unstable and three countries emerged from the crumple of Gran Colombia in 1830 (New Granada, Ecuador and Venezuela).[82][83] Colombia used to be the first constitutional executive in South The US,[84] and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties within the Americas.[85]Slavery used to be abolished within the nation in 1851.[86][87] Interior political and territorial divisions resulted in the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830.[82][83] The so-called “Division of Cundinamarca” adopted the name “New Granada”, which it stored except 1858 when it became the “Confederación Granadina” (Granadine Confederation). After a two-twelve months civil battle in 1863, the “United States of Colombia” used to be created, lasting except 1886, when the nation at final became is named the Republic of Colombia.[84][88] Interior divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, infrequently igniting very bloody civil wars, the most essential being the Thousand Days’ Battle (1899–1902).[89] twentieth century The US of The US’s intentions to persuade the space (in particular the Panama Canal construction and control) resulted in the separation of the Division of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation.[90] The US paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt’s plot within the introduction of Panama, and Colombia identified Panama underneath the phrases of the Thomson–Urrutia Treaty.[91] Colombia used to be engulfed within the battle with Peru over a territorial dispute inspiring the Amazonas Division and its capital Leticia.[92] Soon after, Colombia achieved some extent of political steadiness, which used to be interrupted by a bloody war that took predicament between the late 1940s and the early Fifties, a duration is named La Violencia (“The Violence”). Its predicament off used to be mainly mounting tensions between the two leading political parties, which as a consequence of this truth ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948.[93][94] The ensuing riots in Bogotá, is named El Bogotazo, spread for the duration of the nation and claimed the lives of no now not up to one hundred eighty,000 Colombians.[95] Colombia entered the Korean Battle when Laureano Gómez used to be elected president. It used to be the handiest Latin American nation to hitch the battle in an instantaneous militia plot as an ally of the US. Particularly valuable used to be the resistance of the Colombian troops at Feeble Baldy.[96] The violence between the two political parties lowered first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d’état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then underneath the militia junta of General Gabriel París.[97][98] The Axis of Peace and Memory: A “memorial” in recognition of the victims of the war After Rojas’ deposition, the Colombian Conservative Occasion and Colombian Liberal Occasion agreed to originate the “Nationwide Entrance”, a coalition which would jointly govern the nation. Underneath the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals each and every Four years for sixteen years; the two parties would comprise parity in all other elective offices.[99] The Nationwide Entrance ended “La Violencia”, and Nationwide Entrance administrations tried to institute some distance-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Progress.[100][101] Despite the growth in obvious sectors, many social and political issues persevered, and guerrilla groups were formally created equivalent to the FARC, the ELN and the M-19 to wrestle the chief and political equipment.[102] Since the Sixties, the nation has suffered from an asymmetric low-depth armed war between the chief forces, left-cruise guerrilla groups and beautiful-cruise paramilitaries.[103] The war escalated within the 1990s,[104] mainly in some distance-off rural areas.[105] Since the beginning of the armed war, human rights defenders comprise fought for the respect for human rights, despite staggering opposition.[Note 5][Note 6] Several guerrillas’ organizations made up our minds to demobilize after peace negotiations in 1989–1994.[13] The US has been closely animated about the war since its beginnings, when within the early Sixties the U.S. executive encouraged the Colombian militia to attack leftist militias in rural Colombia. This used to be fragment of the U.S. wrestle against communism.[103][13][109] On Four July 1991, a brand unique Constitution used to be promulgated. The adjustments generated by the unique constitution are viewed as certain by Colombian society.[110][111] Twenty first century The administration of President Álvaro Uribe (2002–10), adopted the democratic security policy which incorporated an constructed-in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency marketing campaign.[112] The Authorities economic thought also promoted self belief in traders.[113] As fragment of a controversial peace course of the AUC (beautiful-cruise paramilitaries) as a proper group had ceased to operate.[114] In February 2008, thousands and thousands of Colombians demonstrated against FARC and other outlawed groups.[115] After peace negotiations in Cuba, the Colombian executive of President Juan Manuel Santos and guerrilla of FARC-EP announced consensus on a 6-point thought in direction of peace.[116] The principle peace accord used to be submitted to voters in a nationwide referendum and used to be rejected with 50.2% vote casting against it and forty 9.eight% vote casting in decide, on a 37.Four% turnout.[117][118] Later on, the Colombian executive and the FARC signed a revised peace deal in November 2016,[119] which the Colombian congress favorite.[120] The Authorities started a course of of help, consideration and comprehensive reparation for victims of war.[121][122] In 2016, President Santos used to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[123] Colombia reveals modest growth within the wrestle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW.[124] When it involves international relatives, Colombia and Venezuela comprise agreed to revive diplomatic relatives.[125] Colombia with a truly orderly electricity generation matrix reaffirms its toughen for the Paris Local climate Agreement.[126] Geography Reduction scheme The geography of Colombia is characterised by its six predominant natural regions that present their be pleased queer characteristics, from the Andes mountain range space shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal space shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal space shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest space shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular space, comprising islands in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[127] Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[11] it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean.[12] It lies between latitudes 12°N and Four°S, and longitudes 67° and seventy 9°W. Fragment of the Ring of Fire, a local of the enviornment subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions,[128] Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which win the majority of the nation’s metropolis centres). Past the Colombian Massif (within the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches is named cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental, working adjoining to the Pacific hover and including the metropolis of Cali; the Cordillera Central, working between the Cauca and Magdalena River valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.[127][129][130] Peaks within the Cordillera Occidental exceed Four,700 m (15,420 feet), and within the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5,000 m (sixteen,404 feet). At 2,600 m (eight,530 feet), Bogotá is the perfect metropolis of its measurement within the enviornment.[127] East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, fragment of the Orinoco River basin, and, within the some distance south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Collectively these lowlands comprise over half of Colombia’s territory, but they win now not up to 6% of the population. To the north the Caribbean hover, dwelling to 21.9% of the population and the region of the predominant port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, generally consists of low-lying plains, but it also accommodates the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range, which entails the nation’s tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the La Guajira Wilderness. In distinction the slim and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are sparsely populated and covered in dense vegetation. The predominant Pacific port is Buenaventura.[127][129][130] The principle rivers of Colombia are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. Colombia has four predominant drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers sign limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.[131] Derive areas and the “Nationwide Park Machine” duvet an space of about 14,268,224 hectares (142,682.24 km2) and legend for 12.seventy seven% of the Colombian territory.[132] When put next to neighboring countries, rates of deforestation in Colombia are peaceable reasonably low.[133] Colombia is the sixth nation within the enviornment by magnitude of whole renewable freshwater offer, and peaceable has substantial reserves of freshwater.[134] Local climate The climate of Colombia is characterised for being tropical presenting adaptations within six natural regions and reckoning on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall.[135] The variety of climate zones in Colombia is characterised for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate. Mountain climate is rarely any doubt one of many queer aspects of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs where climate is definite by elevation. Below 1,000 meters (Three,281 feet) in elevation is the nice and comfortable altitudinal zone, where temperatures are above 24 °C (seventy five.2 °F). About 82.5% of the nation’s whole space lies within the nice and comfortable altitudinal zone. The temperate climate altitudinal zone located between 1,001 and a pair of,000 meters (Three,284 and 6,562 feet)) is characterised for presenting a median temperature ranging between 17 and 24 °C (Sixty two.6 and seventy five.2 °F). The frigid climate is present between 2,001 and Three,000 meters (6,565 and 9,843 feet) and the temperatures fluctuate between 12 and 17 °C (fifty three.6 and Sixty two.6 °F). Past the frigid land lie the alpine prerequisites of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos. Above Four,000 meters (13,123 feet), where temperatures are underneath freezing, the climate is glacial, a zone of permanent snow and ice.[135] Alpine tundra climate within the Sumapaz Paramo Tropical savanna climate in Los Llanos Tropical moist and dry climate in San Andrés y Providencia Biodiversity Chlorochrysa nitidissima. Colombia is dwelling to more bird species than every other nation within the enviornment. Critical article: Biodiversity of Colombia The nationwide flower of Colombia is the orchid Cattleya trianae, which used to be named after the Colombian botanist and doctor José Jerónimo Triana.[136] Colombia is rarely any doubt one of many megadiverse countries in biodiversity,[137] ranking first in bird species.[138] As for vegetation, the nation has between forty,000 and forty five,000 plant species, the same to 10 or 20% of whole international species, here’s worthy more outstanding on condition that Colombia is believed to be a nation of intermediate measurement.[139] Colombia is the 2nd most biodiverse nation within the enviornment, lagging handiest after Brazil which is approximately 7 cases bigger.[14] Colombia is the nation within the planet more characterised by a high biodiversity, with the perfect charge of species by space unit worldwide and it has the largest form of endemisms (species which would be now not found naturally any place else) of any nation. About 10% of the species of the Earth are living in Colombia, including over 1,900 species of bird, better than in Europe and North The US blended, Colombia has 10% of the enviornment’s mammals species, 14% of the amphibian species and 18% of the bird species of the enviornment.[140] Colombia has about 2,000 species of marine fish and is the 2nd most diverse nation in freshwater fish. Colombia is the nation with more endemic species of butterflies, #1 in phrases of orchid species and approximately 7,000 species of beetles. Colombia is 2nd within the form of amphibian species and is the third most diverse nation in reptiles and fingers. There are about 1,900 species of mollusks and in accordance with estimates there are about 300,000 species of invertebrates within the nation. In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and 314 varieties of ecosystems.[141][142] Authorities and politics Critical article: Authorities of Colombia The executive of Colombia takes predicament within the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established within the Constitution of 1991.[111] In accordance with the precept of separation of powers, executive is divided into three branches: the chief division, the legislative division and the judicial division.[143] As the top of the chief division, the President of Colombia serves as both head of advise and head of executive, followed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. The president is elected by standard vote to serve four-twelve months time duration (In 2015, Colombia’s Congress favorite the repeal of a 2004 constitutional modification that eliminated the one-time duration restrict for presidents).[144] On the provincial degree executive energy is vested in division governors, municipal mayors and local administrators for smaller administrative subdivisions, equivalent to corregimientos or comunas.[145] All regional elections are held one twelve months and 5 months after the presidential election.[146][147] The legislative division of executive is represented nationally by the Congress, a bicameral institution comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate.[148][149] The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives is elected in electoral districts.[150] Contributors of both homes are elected to serve four-twelve months phrases two months earlier than the president, also by standard vote.[151] Colombia’s Palace of Justice The judicial division is headed by four high courts,[152] consisting of the Supreme Court docket which affords with penal and civil issues, the Council of Utter, which has special accountability for administrative law and also presents appropriate recommendation to the chief, the Constitutional Court docket, accountable for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Pleasant Council of Judicature, accountable for auditing the judicial division.[153] Colombia operates a machine of civil law, which since 2005 has been applied through an adversarial machine. Despite quite a lot of controversies, the democratic security policy has ensured that faded President Uribe remained standard among Colombian other folks, with his approval ranking peaking at seventy six%, in accordance with a pollin 2009.[154] Nonetheless, having served two phrases, he used to be constitutionally barred from looking out out for re-election in 2010.[155] In the flee-off elections on 20 June 2010 the faded Minister of protection Juan Manuel Santos received with 69% of the vote against the 2nd most neatly-preferred candidate, Antanas Mockus. A 2nd round used to be required since no candidate received over the 50% a hit threshold of votes.[156] Santos received nearly 51% of the vote in 2nd-round elections on 15 June 2014, beating beautiful-cruise rival Óscar Iván Zuluaga, who received forty five%. His time duration as Colombia’s president runs for four years beginning 7 August 2014.[157] Foreign places affairs The VI Summit of the Pacific Alliance: President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is 2nd from the left. Look also: Diplomatic missions of Colombia The international affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of advise, and managed by the Minister of Foreign places Affairs.[158] Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents.[159] Colombia used to be no doubt one of many Four founding people of the Pacific Alliance, which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of issues, providers and products, capital and participants between the people, as well to a fundamental stock trade and joint embassies in several countries.[160] Colombia is also a member of the United Nations, the World Exchange Organization, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union of South American Nations and the Andean Community of Nations.[161][162][163][164] Colombia is a international companion of NATO.[165] Colombia is currently within the accession course of with the OECD.[166] Militia The executive division of executive is accountable for managing the protection of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the militia. The Ministry of Defence workout routines day-to-day control of the militia and the Colombian Nationwide Police. Colombia has 455,461 active militia personnel.[167] And in 2016 Three.Four% of the nation’s GDP went in direction of militia expenditure, putting it twenty fourth within the enviornment. Colombia’s militia are the largest in Latin The US, and it is the 2nd biggest spender on its militia after Brazil.[168][169] The Colombian militia is divided into three branches: the Nationwide Military of Colombia; the Colombian Air Power; and the Colombian Navy. The Nationwide Police functions as a gendarmerie, running independently from the militia as the law enforcement company for the total nation. Every of those operates with their be pleased intelligence equipment damage free the Nationwide Intelligence Directorate (DNI, in Spanish).[170] The Nationwide Military is shaped by divisions, brigades, special brigades and special items;[171] the Colombian Navy by the Naval Infantry, the Naval Power of the Caribbean, the Naval Power of the Pacific, the Naval Power of the South, the Naval Power of the East, Colombia Soar Guards, Naval Aviation and the Relate Express of San Andres y Providencia;[172] and the Air Power by 15 air items.[173] The Nationwide Police has a presence in all municipalities. Administrative divisions Colombia is divided into 32 departments and one capital district, which is handled as a division (Bogotá also serves as the capital of the division of Cundinamarca). Departments are subdivided into municipalities, each and every of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in flip subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in metropolis areas. Every division has a local executive with a governor and assembly without extend elected to four-twelve months phrases, and each and every municipality is headed by a mayor and council. There is a popularly elected local administrative board in each and every of the corregimientos or comunas.[174][175][176][177] As well to the capital four other cities comprise been designated districts (in live special municipalities), on the premise of special distinguishing aspects. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura. Some departments comprise local administrative subdivisions, where towns comprise a substantial concentration of population and municipalities are come each and every other (as an illustration in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). The build departments comprise a low population (as an illustration Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, equivalent to “division corregimientos”, which would be a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento.[174][175] Click on on a division on the scheme underneath to skedaddle to its article. Financial system Colombia’s wrong home product by sector for the 2nd half of of the twelve months 2015 Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised within the twentieth century, by the end of which beautiful 15.eight% of the personnel were employed in agriculture, generating beautiful 6.eight% of GDP; 19.6% of the personnel were employed in trade and sixty four.6% in providers and products, accountable for 34.zero% and 59.2% of GDP respectively.[178][179] The nation’s economic production is dominated by its solid home request. Consumption expenditure by households is the largest element of GDP.[180][16][181] Colombia’s market economy grew progressively within the latter fragment of the twentieth century, with wrong home product (GDP) rising at a median charge of over Four% per twelve months between 1970 and 1998. The nation suffered a recession in 1999 (the first stout twelve months of negative development for the reason that Enormous Despair), and the restoration from that recession used to be long and painful. Nonetheless, in most widespread years development has been impressive, reaching 6.9% in 2007, no doubt one of many perfect rates of development in Latin The US.[182] In line with World Monetary Fund estimates, in 2012 Colombia’s GDP (PPP) used to be US$500 billion (28th within the enviornment and third in South The US). Total executive expenditures legend for 28.7 percent of the home economy. Public debt equals forty one percent of wrong home product. A solid fiscal climate used to be reaffirmed by a remove in bond ratings.[183][184][185] Annual inflation closed 2016 at 5.seventy five% YoY (vs. 6.seventy seven% YoY in 2015).[186] The current nationwide unemployment charge in 2016 used to be 9.2%,[187] even supposing the informality is the largest announce coping with the labour market (the earnings of formal workers climbed 24.eight% in 5 years whereas labor incomes of casual workers rose handiest 9%).[188] Colombia has Free trade Zone (FTZ),[189] equivalent to Zona Franca del Pacifico, located within the Valle del Cauca, no doubt one of many most putting areas for international funding.[190] The financial sector has grown favorably as a consequence of factual liquidity within the economy, the growth of credit and the certain efficiency of the Colombian economy.[17][191][192] The Colombian Inventory Alternate through the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA) presents a regional market to trade equities.[193][194] Colombia is now no doubt one of handiest three economies with a most realistic probably acquire on the energy of appropriate rights index, in accordance with the World Monetary institution.[195] The Colombian Inventory Alternate is fragment of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).[196] The electricity production in Colombia comes mainly from renewable vitality sources. 69.Ninety seven% is got from the hydroelectric generation.[197] Colombia’s commitment to renewable vitality used to be identified within the 2014 World Inexperienced Financial system Index (GGEI), ranking among the top 10 countries within the enviornment in phrases of greening efficiency sectors.[198] Colombia is prosperous in natural sources, and its predominant exports encompass mineral fuels, oils, distillation merchandise, fruit and other agricultural merchandise, sugars and sugar confectionery, food merchandise, plastics, treasured stones, metals, forest merchandise, chemical items, pharmaceuticals, vehicles, electronic merchandise, electrical equipments, perfumery and cosmetics, equipment, manufactured articles, textile and fabrics, clothing and shoes, glass and glassware, furniture, prefabricated buildings, militia merchandise, dwelling and predicament of labor cloth, construction equipment, tool, among others.[199] Main buying and selling partners are the US, China, the European Union and a few Latin American countries.[200][201] Non-passe exports comprise boosted the growth of Colombian international sales as well to the diversification of locations of export on legend of unique free trade agreements.[202] In 2016, the Nationwide Administrative Division of Statistics (DANE) reported that 28.zero% of the population were living underneath the poverty line, of which eight.5% in “outrageous poverty”.[5] The Authorities has also been establishing a course of of economic inclusion within the nation’s most inclined population.[203] Latest economic development has resulted in a if truth be told intensive develop bigger of most widespread millionaires, including the unique entrepreneurs, Colombians with a earn value exceeding US $1 billion.[204][205] The contribution of Hurry & Tourism to GDP used to be USD5,880.3bn (2.zero% of whole GDP) in 2016. Tourism generated 556,135 jobs (2.5% of whole employment) in 2016.[206] Foreign places tourist visits were predicted to comprise risen from zero.6 million in 2007 to 2.98 million in 2015.[207][208] Science and know-how Critical article: Science and know-how in Colombia COLCIENCIAS is a Colombian Authorities company that helps elementary and applied research. Colombia has better than Three,950 research groups in science and know-how.[209] iNNpulsa, a executive physique that promotes entrepreneurship and innovation within the nation, presents grants to startups, as well to to other providers and products it and establishments fancy Apps.co provide. Co-working spaces comprise arisen to operate communities for startups substantial and slight.[210][211] Organizations equivalent to the Company for Natural Research (CIB) for the toughen of younger other folks challenging on scientific work has been efficiently developed in Colombia.[212] The World Heart for Tropical Agriculture essentially based in Colombia investigates the rising project of international warming and food security.[213] Basic innovations linked to the medication comprise been made in Colombia, equivalent to the first external man made pacemaker with inner electrodes, invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo, invention of large significance for people who endure from heart failure. Also invented in Colombia were the microkeratome and keratomileusis approach, which bear the elementary basis of what now could perchance well be is named LASIK (no doubt one of many largest systems for the correction of refractive errors of vision) and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus, among others.[214] Colombia has begun to innovate in militia know-how for its navy and other armies of the enviornment; in particular within the make and introduction of non-public ballistic protection merchandise, militia hardware, militia robots, bombs, simulators and radar.[215][216][217] Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. Tohme, researcher identified for his work on the genetic diversity of food, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo who’s valuable for his groundbreaking work on synthetic vaccines for malaria, Francisco Lopera who found the “Paisa Mutation” or a form of early-onset Alzheimer’s,[218]Rodolfo Llinás known for his leer of the intrinsic neurons properties and the thought of a syndrome that had changed the diagram of belief the functioning of the brain, Jairo Quiroga Puello identified for his studies on the characterization of synthetic substances which is able to be previous to wrestle fungus, tumors, tuberculosis and even some viruses and Ángela Restrepo who established appropriate diagnoses and treatments to fight the outcomes of a disease attributable to the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, among other scientists.[219][220][221] Infrastructure Port of Cartagena. Transportation in Colombia is regulated within the functions of the Ministry of Transport [222] and entities equivalent to the Nationwide Roads Institute (INVÍAS) accountable for the Highways in Colombia (13,000 km),[223] the Aerocivil, accountable for civil aviation and airports,[224] the Nationwide Infrastructure Agency, to blame of concessions through public–deepest partnerships, for the make, construction, maintenance, operation, and administration of the transport infrastructure,[225] the General Maritime Directorate (Dimar) has the accountability of coordinating maritime traffic control alongside with the Colombian Navy,[226] among others and underneath the supervision of the Superintendency of Ports and Transport.[227] The aim of Colombia’s executive is to provide 7,000 km of roads for the 2016–2020 duration and decrease plug cases by 30 per cent and transport prices by 20 per cent. A toll aspect motorway concession programme will comprise forty projects, and is fragment of a better strategic plot to speculate nearly $50bn in transport infrastructure, including: railway systems; making the Magdalena river navigable all over again; bettering port facilities; as well to an growth of Bogotá’s airport.[228] Demographics Critical article: Demographics of Colombia Inhabitants density of Colombia With an estimated forty 9 million other folks in 2017, Colombia is the third-most populous nation in Latin The US, after Brazil and Mexico.[3] It is also dwelling to the third-biggest form of Spanish speakers within the enviornment after Mexico and the US.[229] At the beginning of the twentieth century, Colombia’s population used to be approximately Four million.[230] Since the early Nineteen Seventies Colombia has experienced steady declines in its fertility, mortality, and population development rates. The population development charge for 2015 is estimated to be zero.9%.[231] The total fertility charge used to be 1.9 births per lady in 2015.[232] About 26.eight% of the population were 15 years previous or youthful, sixty 5.7% were between 15 and sixty four years previous, and 7.Four% were over sixty 5 years previous. The percentage of older participants within the total population has begun to develop bigger substantially.[233] Colombia is projected to comprise a population of fifty.2 million by 2020 and Fifty five.Three million by 2050.[234] The population is focused within the Andean highlands and alongside the Caribbean hover, also the population densities are generally better within the Andean space. The 9 eastern lowland departments, comprising about fifty four% of Colombia’s space, haven’t up to 6% of the population.[129][130] Traditionally a rural society, motion to metropolis areas used to be very heavy within the mid-twentieth century, and Colombia is now no doubt one of many most urbanized countries in Latin The US. The metropolis population increased from 31% of the total in 1938 to almost 60% in 1973, and by 2014 the figure stood at seventy six%.[235][236] The population of Bogotá on my own has increased from beautiful over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately eight million as of late.[237] In whole seventy-two cities now comprise populations of 100,000 or more (2015).[238] As of 2012 Colombia has the enviornment’s biggest populations of internally displaced participants (IDPs), estimated to be up to Four.9 million other folks.[239] The life expectancy is Seventy four.eight years in 2015 and infant mortality is 13.6 per thousand in 2015.[240][241] In 2015, ninety four.fifty eight% of adults and 98.sixty six% of early life are literate and the chief spends about Four.forty 9% of its GDP in education.[242] Colombia is ranked third within the enviornment within the Chuffed Planet Index. Languages More than ninety 9.2% of Colombians talk Spanish, frequently referred to as Castilian; sixty 5 Amerindian languages, two Creole languages, the Romani language and Colombian Signal Language are also spoken within the nation. English has official blueprint within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[8][243][244][245] At the side of Spanish, a crammed with one hundred and one languages are listed for Colombia within the Ethnologue database. The explicit form of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors lift into legend as utterly different languages what others lift into legend to be varieties or dialects of the same language. Finest estimates recorded seventy one languages which would be spoken in-nation as of late—most of which belong to the Chibchan, Tucanoan, Bora–Witoto, Guajiboan, Arawakan, Cariban, Barbacoan, and Saliban language families. There are currently about 850,000 speakers of native languages.[246][247] Ethnic groups Critical article: Human biological diversity and ethnicity in Colombia Colombia is ethnically diverse, its other folks descending from the brand new native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans at the beginning dropped on the nation as slaves, and twentieth-century immigrants from Europe and the Heart East, all contributing to a various cultural heritage.[248] The demographic distribution reflects a pattern that is influenced by colonial historical previous.[249] Whites tend to are living mainly in metropolis centers, fancy Bogotá, Medellín or Cali, and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the predominant cities also encompass mestizos. Mestizo campesinos (other folks living in rural areas) are also living within the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors blended with the girls folks of Amerindian chiefdoms. Mestizos encompass artisans and slight tradesmen that comprise conducted a predominant fragment within the metropolis growth of most widespread many years.[250] The 2005 census reported that the “non-ethnic population”, consisting of whites and mestizos (those of blended white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the nationwide population. 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise Three.Four% of the population. zero.01% of the population are Roma. An extraofficial estimate considers that the forty 9% of the Colombian population is Mestizo or of blended European and Amerindian ancestry, and that approximately 37% is White, mainly of Spanish lineage, but there is also a substantial population of Heart East descent; in some sectors of society there could be a if truth be told intensive input of Italian and German ancestry.[2] Other folks with African ancestry in Colombia are concentrated mostly in coastal areas. Amerindian population of Colombia by municipality in 2005. Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a discount in population for the duration of the Spanish rule [251] and a lot others were absorbed into the mestizo population, however the remainder currently represents over eighty particular cultures. Reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples retract 30,571,640 hectares (305,716.Four km2) (27% of the nation’s whole) and are inhabited by better than 800,000 other folks.[252] Among the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[253] the Paez, the Pastos, the Emberá and the Zenú.[254] The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre comprise the largest indigenous populations.[1] The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded on the first Nationwide Indigenous Congress in 1982, is an group representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia. In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the present international law pertaining to indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[255] Dark Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early within the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century. Tall Afro-Colombian communities are found as of late on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The population of the division of Chocó, working alongside the northern portion of Colombia’s Pacific hover, is over Eighty% shadowy.[256]British and Jamaicans migrated mainly to the islands of San Andres and Providencia. A range of alternative Europeans and North Americans migrated to the nation within the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including other folks from the faded USSR for the duration of and after the 2d World Battle.[258] Many immigrant communities comprise settled on the Caribbean hover, in particular most widespread immigrants from the Heart East. Barranquilla (the largest metropolis of the Colombian Caribbean) and other Caribbean cities comprise the largest populations of Lebanese, Palestinian, and other Arabs.[259][260] There are also valuable communities of Chinese, Japanese, Romanis and Jews.[248] There is a predominant migration style of Venezuelans, as a consequence of the political and economic announce in Venezuela.[261][262] Faith Look also: Freedom of religion in Colombia The Las Lajas Sanctuary within the southern Colombian Division of Nariño The Nationwide Administrative Division of Statistics (DANE) would now not web non secular statistics, and appropriate reports are advanced to diagram. Nonetheless, essentially based on diversified studies and a verify, about ninety% of the population adheres to Christianity, the majority of which (70.9%) are Roman Catholic, whereas a essential minority (sixteen.7%) adhere to Protestantism (essentially Evangelicalism). Some Four.7% of the population is atheist or agnostic, whereas Three.5% negate to evaluate in God but attain now not follow a explicit religion. 1.eight% of Colombians adhere to Jehovah’s Witnesses and Adventism and now not up to 1% adhere to other religions, equivalent to Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Mormonism, Hinduism, Indigenous religions, Hare Krishna motion, Rastafari motion, Orthodox Catholic Church, and non secular studies. The final other folks either did now not respond or replied that they did now not know. As well to the above statistics, 35.9% of Colombians reported that they did now not practice their faith actively.[263][264][265] While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic nation by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all non secular faiths and churches are equally free earlier than the law.[266] Very most realistic cities Colombia is a highly urbanized nation. The largest cities within the nation are Bogotá, with an estimated eight million inhabitants, Medellín, with an estimated 2.5 million inhabitants, Cali, with an estimated 2.Four million inhabitants, and Barranquilla, with an estimated 1.2 million inhabitants. Cartagena highlights in form of inhabitants and the metropolis of Bucaramanga is relevant in phrases of metropolitan space population.[238] Very most realistic cities or towns in ColombiaNational Administrative Division of Statistics (DANE), 2016 projections[238] Sinister Identify Division Pop. Sinister Identify Division Pop. BogotáMedellín 1 Bogotá Bogotá 7,963,379 eleven Santa Marta Magdalena 474,520 CaliBarranquilla 2 Medellín Antioquia 2,457,680 12 Villavicencio Meta 471,383 Three Cali Valle del Cauca 2,358,302 13 Bello Antioquia 458,196 Four Barranquilla Atlántico 1,219,382 14 Pereira Risaralda 398,719 5 Cartagena Bolívar 971,592 15 Valledupar Cesar 395,860 6 Cúcuta Norte de Santander 634,276 sixteen Buenaventura Valle del Cauca 373,717 7 Soledad Atlántico 631,599 17 Pasto Nariño 371,045 eight Ibagué Tolima 528,214 18 Manizales Caldas 369,981 9 Bucaramanga Santander 521,857 19 Montería Córdoba 346,873 10 Soacha Cundinamarca 516,435 20 Neiva Huila 324,375 Custom Colombia lies on the crossroads of Latin The US and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a large assortment of cultural influences. Native American, Spanish and other European, African, American, Caribbean, and Heart Jap influences, as well to other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia’s widespread culture. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic adjustments comprise also left an impact. Many nationwide symbols, both objects and issues, comprise arisen from Colombia’s diverse cultural traditions and plot to indicate what Colombia, and the Colombian other folks, comprise in fundamental. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the chief through the Ministry of Custom. Literature Critical article: Colombian literature Jorge Isaacs used to be no doubt one of many ideal exponents of Colombian literature within the nineteenth century. Colombian literature dates encourage to pre-Columbian know-how; a distinguished instance of the duration is the fable poem is named the Sage of Yurupary.[268] In Spanish colonial cases, distinguished writers encompass Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias), Hernando Domínguez Camargo and his fable poem to San Ignacio de Loyola, Pedro Simón, Juan Rodríguez Freyle (El Carnero),[269] Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita, and the nun Francisca Josefa de Castillo, consultant of mysticism. Put up-independence literature linked to Romanticism highlighted Antonio Nariño, José Fernández Madrid, Camilo Torres Tenorio and Francisco Antonio Zea.[270][271] In the 2nd half of of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the literary genre is named costumbrismo became standard; huge writers of this duration were Tomás Carrasquilla, Jorge Isaacs and Rafael Pombo (the latter of whom wrote distinguished works of kids’s literature).[272][273] Within that duration, authors equivalent to José Asunción Silva, José Eustasio Rivera, León de Greiff, Porfirio Barba-Jacob and José María Vargas Vila developed the modernist motion.[274][275][276] In 1872, Colombia established the Colombian Academy of Language, the first Spanish language academy within the Americas.[277] Candelario Obeso wrote the groundbreaking Cantos Populares de mi Tierra (1877), the first e book of poetry by an Afro-Colombian creator.[278][279] Between 1939 and 1940 seven books of poetry were printed underneath the name Stone and Sky within the metropolis of Bogotá that very much impacted the nation; they were edited by the poet Jorge Rojas.[280] In the following decade, Gonzalo Arango founded the motion of “nothingness” in line with the violence of the time;[281] he used to be influenced by nihilism, existentialism, and the even handed one other huge Colombian creator: Fernando González Ochoa.[282] One day of the boost in Latin American literature, a hit writers emerged, led by Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez and his magnum opus, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, Manuel Mejía Vallejo, and Álvaro Mutis, a creator who used to be awarded the Cervantes Prize and the Prince of Asturias Award for Letters.[283][284] Other leading contemporary authors are Fernando Vallejo, William Ospina (Rómulo Gallegos Prize) and Germán Castro Caycedo. Visible arts Critical article: Colombian art Colombian art has over Three,000 years of historical previous. Colombian artists comprise captured the nation’s altering political and cultural backdrop the use of a range of kinds and mediums. There is archeological evidence of ceramics being produced earlier in Colombia than any place else within the Americas, dating as early as Three,000 BCE.[285][286] The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship comprise been attributed to the Tumaco other folks [287] of the Pacific hover and date to round 325 BCE. Roughly between 200 BCE and 800 CE, the San Agustín culture, masters of stonecutting, entered its “classical duration”. They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi, and substantial stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphhic varieties out of stone.[286][288] Colombian art has followed the traits of the time, so for the duration of the sixteenth to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had an immense have an effect on on Colombian art, and the everyday baroque style used to get replaced with rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown.[289][290] More now not too long ago, Colombian artists Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martínez Delgado started the Colombian Murial Circulate within the 1940s, that contains the neoclassical aspects of Artwork Deco.[285][286][291][292] Since the Fifties, the Colombian art began to comprise a particular point of behold, reinventing passe parts underneath the ideas of the twentieth century. Examples of this are the Greiff portraits by Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo, exhibiting what the Colombian art could perchance well attain with the unique systems applied to conventional Colombian issues. Carlos Correa, with his paradigmatic “Naturaleza muerta en silencio” (quiet needless nature), combines geometrical abstraction and cubism. Alejandro Obregón is in total scheme to be as the father of widespread Colombian represent, and no doubt one of many most influential artist on this duration, as a consequence of his originality, the represent of Colombian landscapes with symbolic and expressionist use of animals, (specially the Andean condor).[286][293][294]Fernando Botero, Omar Rayo, Enrique Grau, Édgar Negret, David Manzur, Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt and Oscar Murillo are one of the most most Colombian artists featured on the international degree.[285][295][296][297] The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries used to be mostly devoted to non secular depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish colleges of sacred sculpture. One day of the early duration of the Colombian republic, the nationwide artists were centered within the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a easy neoclassicist style.[298] One day of the twentieth century, the Colombian sculpture began to bear a mettlesome and modern work with the plot of reaching a better belief of nationwide sensitivity.[286][299] Colombian photography used to be marked by the arrival of the daguerreotype. Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros used to be who brought the daguerreotype course of to Colombia in 1841. The Piloto public library has Latin The US’s biggest archive of negatives, containing 1.7 million vintage pictures defending Colombia 1848 except 2005.[300][301] The Colombian press has promoted the work of the cartoonists. In most widespread many years, fanzines, net and impartial publishers comprise been elementary to the growth of the humorous in Colombia.[302][303][304] Structure Look also: Muisca structure One day of the cases, there comprise been quite a lot of architectural kinds, from those of indigenous peoples to contemporary ones, passing through colonial (militia and non secular), Republican, transition and widespread kinds.[305] Outmoded habitation areas, longhouses, slash terraces, roads as the Inca aspect motorway machine, cemeteries, hypogeums and necropolises are all fragment of the architectural heritage of indigenous peoples.[306] Some eminent indigenous structures are the preceramic and ceramic archaeological plot of Tequendama,[307]Tierradentro (a park that accommodates the largest concentration of pre-Columbian enormous shaft tombs with aspect chambers),[308] the largest assortment of non secular monuments and megalithic sculptures in South The US, located in San Agustín, Huila.[288][309]Misplaced metropolis (an archaeological plot with a assortment of terraces carved into the mountainside, a earn of tiled roads and quite a lot of alternative round plazas) and also stand out the substantial villages mainly constructed with stone, wood, cane and grime.[310] Guatavita La Nueva, an architectural plot with colonial and neo-Spanish parts Structure for the duration of the duration of conquest and colonization is mainly derived of adapting European kinds to local prerequisites, and Spanish have an effect on, in particular Andalusian and Extremaduran, is also with out predicament seen.[311] When Europeans founded cities two issues were making simultaneously: the dimensioning of geometrical space (town sq., aspect motorway), and the region of a tangible point of orientation.[312] The come of forts used to be fundamental for the duration of the Caribbean and in some cities of the inner, on legend of the dangers that represented the adverse indigenous groups and the pirates who roamed the seas.[313] Churches, chapels, colleges, and hospitals belonging to non secular orders predicament off a huge metropolis affect.[314]Baroque structure is previous in militia buildings and public spaces.[315] Marcelino Arroyo, Francisco José de Caldas and Domingo de Petrés were huge representatives of neo-classical structure.[314] The Nationwide Capitol is a huge consultant of romanticism.[316] Wood is extensively previous in doors, dwelling windows, railings and ceilings for the duration of the colonization of Antioquia. The Caribbean structure acquires a solid Arabic have an effect on.[317] The Teatro Colón in Bogotá is a lavish instance of structure from the nineteenth century.[318] The quintas homes with innovations within the volumetric scheme are one of the most most handiest examples of the Republican structure; the Republican action within the metropolis centered on the make of three varieties of spaces: parks with forests, slight metropolis parks and avenues and the Gothic style used to be most frequently previous for the make of churches.[319] Deco style, widespread neoclassicism, eclecticism folklorist and art deco decorative sources very much influenced the structure of Colombia, in particular for the duration of the transition duration.[320]Modernism contributed with unique construction applied sciences and unique materials (steel, bolstered concrete, glass and synthetic materials) and the topology structure and lightened slabs machine even comprise a huge have an effect on.[321] Essentially the most influential architects of the stylish motion were Rogelio Salmona and Fernando Martínez Sanabria.[322] The contemporary structure of Colombia is designed to give better significance to the materials, this structure takes into legend the explicit natural and man made geographies and is also an structure that appeals to the senses.[323] The conservation of the architectural and metropolis heritage of Colombia has been promoted in most widespread years.[324] Music Colombian tiple Colombian music blends European-influenced guitar and music structure with substantial gaita flutes and percussion instruments from the indigenous population, whereas its percussion structure and dance varieties approach from Africa. Colombia has a various and dynamic musical environment.[325] Musicians, composers, music producers and singers from Colombia are identified internationally equivalent to Shakira, Juanes, Carlos Vives and others.[326] Guillermo Uribe Holguín, a a must-comprise cultural figure within the Nationwide Symphony Orchestra of Colombia, Luis Antonio Calvo and Blas Emilio Atehortúa are one of the most most ideal exponents of the art music.[327] The Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra is rarely any doubt one of many most active orchestras in Colombia.[328] Caribbean music has many vivid rhythms, equivalent to cumbia (it is conducted by the maracas, the drums, the gaitas and guacharaca), porro (it is an uneventful but fully satisfied rhythm), mapalé (with its posthaste rhythm and accurate clapping) and the “vallenato”, which originated within the northern fragment of the Caribbean hover (the rhythm is mainly conducted by the caja, the guacharaca, and accordion).[329][330][331][332][333] The music from the Pacific hover, equivalent to the currulao is characterised by its solid use of drums (instruments equivalent to the native marimba, the conunos, the bass drum, the aspect drum and the cuatro guasas or tubular rattle). A extraordinarily valuable rhythm of the south space of the Pacific hover is the contradanza (it is previous in dance reveals, as a outcomes of the putting colours of the costumes).[329][334][335] Marimba music, passe chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific space are on UNESCO’s E book Listing of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.[336][337][338] Basic musical rhythms of the Andean Utter are the danza (dance of Andean folklore coming up from the transformation of the European contredance), the bambuco (it is conducted with guitar, tiple[339] and mandolin, the rhythm is danced by couples), the pasillo (a rhythm impressed by the Austrian waltz and the Colombian “danza”, the lyrics comprise been composed by wisely-known poets), the rajaleña (it is conducted by other folks who play the queco flute, the tiple, the carangano and the drum), the sanjuanero (it originated in Tolima and Huila Departments, the rhythm is fully satisfied and posthaste).[340][341][342][343][344] Other than these passe rhythms, salsa music has spread for the duration of the nation, and the metropolis of Cali is believed to be by many salsa singers to be ‘The New Salsa Capital of the World’.[329][345][346] The instruments that distinguish the music of the Jap Plains are the harp, the cuatro (a form of four-stringed guitar) and maracas. Basic rhythms of this space are the joropo (a posthaste rhythm and there is also tapping as a outcomes of its flamenco ancestry) and the galeron (it is heard a lot whereas cowboys are working).[329][347][348][349] The music of the Amazon space is strongly influenced by the indigenous non secular practices. Among the musical instruments previous are the manguaré (a musical instrument of ceremonial form, consisting of a pair of considerable cylindrical drums), the quena (melodic instrument), the rondador, the congas, bells, and utterly different varieties of flutes.[350][351][352] The music of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina is in total accompanied by a mandolin, a bathtub-bass, a jawbone, a guitar and maracas. Some standard archipelago rhythms are the Schottische, the Calypso, the Polka and the Mento.[353][354] Standard culture The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá is rarely any doubt one of many largest theater festivals within the enviornment.[355] Theater used to be presented in Colombia for the duration of the Spanish colonization in 1550 through zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Custom and quite a lot of non-public and advise owned organizations. The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá is the cultural event of the perfect significance in Colombia and no doubt one of many largest theater festivals within the enviornment.[355] Other valuable theater events are: The Festival of Puppet The Fanfare (Medellín), The Manizales Theater Festival, The Caribbean Theatre Festival (Santa Marta) and The Artwork Festival of Standard Custom “Cultural Invasion” (Bogotá).[356][357][358] Even though the Colombian cinema is younger as an trade, more now not too long ago the movie trade used to be rising with toughen from the Movie Act handed in 2003.[360] Many movie festivals lift predicament in Colombia, however the two most valuable are the Cartagena Movie Festival, which is the oldest movie competition in Latin The US, and the Bogotá Movie Festival.[359][361][362] Some valuable nationwide circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador. Tv in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three advise-owned TV networks with nationwide coverage, as well to 6 regional TV networks and dozens of local TV stations. Non-public channels, RCN and Caracol are the perfect-rated. The regional channels and regional newspapers duvet a division or more and its jabber is made in these particular areas.[363][364][365] Colombia has three predominant nationwide radio networks: Radiodifusora Nacional de Colombia, a advise-flee nationwide radio; Caracol Radio and RCN Radio, privately owned networks with a full lot of pals. There are other nationwide networks, including Cadena Tall, Todelar, and Colmundo. Many a full lot of radio stations are registered with the Ministry of Knowledge Technology and Communications.[366] Delicacies Critical article: Colombian cuisine Sancocho de gallina criolla is a passe soup in Colombia. Colombia’s varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and plant life as well to the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and formulation fluctuate widely by space. Among the most up-tp-date formulation are: cereals equivalent to rice and maize; tubers equivalent to potato and cassava; diversified legumes; meats, including purple meat, chicken, pork and goat; fish; and seafood.[367][368] Colombia cuisine also aspects quite a lot of tropical fruits equivalent to cape gooseberry, feijoa, arazá, dragon fruit, mangostino, granadilla, papaya, guava, mora (blackberry), lulo, soursop and passionfruit.[369] Colombia is rarely any doubt one of many enviornment’s biggest buyers of fruit juices.[370] Amongst the most consultant appetizers and soups are patacones (fried inexperienced plantains), sancocho de gallina (chicken soup with root greens) and ajiaco (potato and corn soup). E book snacks and breads are pandebono, arepas (corn cakes), aborrajados (fried candy plantains with cheese), torta de choclo, empanadas and almojábanas. E book predominant classes are bandeja paisa, lechona tolimense, mamona, tamales and fish dishes (equivalent to arroz de lisa), in particular in coastal regions where kibbeh, suero, costeño cheese and carimañolas are also eaten. E book aspect dishes are papas chorreadas (potatoes with cheese), remolachas rellenas con huevo duro (beets stuffed with tough-boiled egg) and arroz con coco (coconut rice).[369][367]Natural food is a present style in tremendous cities, even supposing in normal steady through the nation the fruits and veggies are very natural and contemporary.[371][372] E book cakes are buñuelos, natillas, Maria Luisa cake, bocadillo made of guayaba (guava jelly), cocadas (coconut balls), casquitos de guayaba (candied guava peels), torta de natas, obleas, flan de mango, roscón, milhoja, manjar blanco, dulce de feijoa, dulce de papayuela, torta de mojicón, and esponjado de curuba. Fashioned sauces (salsas) are hogao (tomato and onion sauce) and Colombian-style ají.[369][367] Some consultant drinks are coffee (Tinto), champús, cholado, lulada, avena colombiana, sugarcane juice, aguapanela, aguardiente, hot chocolate and contemporary fruit juices (in total made with water or milk).[369][367] Sports actions Critical article: Sport in Colombia Tejo is Colombia’s nationwide sport and is a crew sport that entails launching projectiles to hit a aim.[373] But of all sports actions in Colombia, soccer is the most neatly-preferred. Colombia used to be the champion of the 2001 Copa América, in which they predicament a brand unique memoir of being undefeated, conceding no targets and a hit each and every match. Interestingly, Colombia has been awarded “mover of the twelve months” twice.[374] Colombia is a mecca for roller skaters. The nationwide crew is a perennial powerhouse on the World Roller Speed Skating Championships.[375] Colombia has traditionally been very factual in cycling and reasonably a pair of Colombian cyclists comprise triumphed in predominant competitions of cycling.[376] In baseball, one other sport rooted within the Caribbean Soar, Colombia used to be world beginner champion in 1947 and 1965. Baseball is standard within the Caribbean, mainly within the cities Cartagena, Barranquilla and Santa Marta. Of those cities comprise approach factual gamers fancy: Orlando Cabrera, Edgar Rentería[377] who used to be champion of the World Assortment in 1997 and 2010, and others who comprise conducted in Critical League Baseball.[378] Boxing is rarely any doubt one of many sports actions that more world champions has produced for Colombia.[379][380] Motorsports also occupies a a must-comprise predicament within the carrying preferences of Colombians; Juan Pablo Montoya is a flee automobile driver known for a hit 7 Diagram One events. Colombia also has excelled in sports actions equivalent to BMX, judo, shooting sport, taekwondo, wrestling, high diving and athletics, also has a protracted custom in weightlifting and bowling.[381][382][383] Smartly being Colombia leads the annual ranking of the handiest clinics and hospitals in Latin The US.[384] The final life expectancy in Colombia at beginning is Seventy four.eight years (seventy one.2 years for males and Seventy eight.Four years for females).[240] Smartly being requirements in Colombia comprise improved very worthy for the reason that 1980s, healthcare reforms comprise resulted in the massive improvements within the healthcare systems of the nation. Even though this unique machine has widened population coverage by the social and health security machine from 21% (pre-1993) to 96% in 2012,[385] health disparities persist. By health tourism, many folks from over the enviornment plug from their places of space to other countries looking out out for scientific treatment and the sights within the countries visited. Colombia is projected as no doubt one of Latin The US’s predominant locations in phrases of health tourism as a consequence of the quality of its health care mavens, a factual form of establishments devoted to health, and an immense stock of natural and architectural net sites. Cities equivalent to Bogotá, Cali, Medellín and Bucaramanga are the most visited in cardiology procedures, neurology, dental treatments, stem cell treatment, ENT, ophthalmology and joint replacements among others for the scientific providers and products of top quality.[386] A leer conducted by América Economía magazine ranked 21 Colombian health care establishments among the top 44 in Latin The US, amounting to Forty eight percent of the total.[384] Training Mario Laserna Building – College of Los Andes The academic expertise of many Colombian kids begins with attendance at a preschool academy except age 5 (Educación preescolar). Fashioned education (Educación básica) is obligatory by law.[387] It has two stages: Critical fundamental education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – kids from six to 10 years previous, and Secondary fundamental education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Fashioned education is followed by Heart vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. It goes to comprise utterly different vocational practicing modalities or specialties (academic, technical, trade, and so forth.) in accordance with the curriculum adopted by each and every college.[388] After the a hit completion of the total fundamental and heart education years, a high-college diploma is awarded. The high-college graduate is is named a bachiller, because secondary fundamental college and heart education are traditionally scheme to be collectively as a unit called bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). College students in their final twelve months of heart education lift the ICFES take a look at (now renamed Saber eleven) in present to bear access to better education (Educación appropriate). This better education entails undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and put up-graduate studies. Technical professional establishments of Greater Training are also opened to varsity students holder of a qualification in Arts and Business. This qualification is in total awarded by the SENA after a two years curriculum.[389] Bachilleres (high-college graduates) could perchance well enter steady into a qualified undergraduate occupation program supplied by a college; these programs final up to 5 years (or much less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and put up-graduate studies), at the same time as worthy to 6 to seven years for some careers, equivalent to medication. In Colombia, there is now not an institution equivalent to varsity; college students skedaddle without extend steady into a occupation program at a college or every other academic institution to diagram a qualified, technical or technological title. As soon as graduated from the college, other folks are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the occupation they’ve chosen. For some professional occupation programs, college students are required to lift the Saber-Pro take a look at, in their final twelve months of undergraduate academic education.[388] Public spending on education as a share of wrong home product in 2015 used to be Four.forty 9%. This represented 15.05% of whole executive expenditure. The principle and secondary wrong enrolment ratios stood at 113.fifty six% and 98.09% respectively. College-life expectancy used to be 14.forty two years. A crammed with ninety four.fifty eight% of the population outmoded 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 98.sixty six% of those outmoded 15–24.[242] Look also Index of Colombia-linked articles Outline of Colombia Notes ^ IPA transcription of “República de Colombia”: [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]. ^ Balboa is handiest known for being the first European to glimpse the Pacific Ocean in 1513, which he called Mar del Sur (or “Sea of the South”) and would facilitate Spanish exploration and settlement of South The US. ^ A royal decree of 1713 favorite the legality of Palenque de San Basilio founded by runaway slaves as a refuge within the seventeenth century. The opposite folks of San Basilio fought against slavery, thereby giving upward push to the first free predicament within the Americas.[53] Its predominant leader used to be Benkos Biohó, born in West Africa.[54] The cultural space of Palenque de San Basilio used to be declared in 2005 as a “Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” by UNESCO. ^ Peter Claver used to be a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On 19 March 1616 he used to be ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the glory of the slaves. After four years of illness, Peter died in 1654. Two providers and products were held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African chums. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He is now Identified as the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia.[55][56] ^ Héctor Abad used to be a eminent scientific doctor, college professor, and human rights leader whose holistic vision of healthcare led him to found the Colombian Nationwide College of Public Smartly being. The rising violence and human rights abuses of the Nineteen Seventies and 1980s led him to wrestle for social justice in his neighborhood, but his political views put him at odds with those in energy and Abad used to be killed in 1987. His son acknowledged he realized one thing from his father that the murderers originate now not know easy the appropriate technique to attain: to make use of phrases to divulge the truth – a truth that will final longer than their lie.[106][107] ^ Javier de Nicoló used to be an Italian-born salesian priest who developed a program that has supplied better than forty,000 younger other folks the education and sincere toughen they needed to alter into productive residents. De Nicoló arrived in Colombia a twelve months after the bogotazo, and he knew first-hand what battle did to families. One day of World Battle II, Javier pursued his vocational practicing in a slaughter- home, after bombing raids destroyed his high college.[108] References ^ a b c “visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos” (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013. ^ a b c Bushnell, David; Hudson, Rex A. (2010). The Society and Its Ambiance; Colombia: a nation leer (PDF). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. pp. 87, ninety two. ^ a b c “Titillating clock”. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Retrieved sixteen June 2017. ^ a b c d e “World Financial Outlook Database: Colombia”. World Monetary Fund. April 2017. Retrieved 17 Could well perchance perchance 2017. ^ a b “socio-economic policies” (PDF). dane.gov.co. Retrieved 24 March 2017. ^ “2016 Human Model Report” (PDF). United Nations Model Programme. 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017. ^ Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title I – Bearing on Elementary Principles – Article 10) ^ a b “LEY forty seven DE 1993” (in Spanish). alcaldiabogota.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014. ^ “The official Colombian time” (in Spanish). horalegal.inm.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014. ^ “Decreto 4175 de 2011, artículo 6, numeral 14” (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República de Colombia. 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Transferring Wealth and Vitality from the Feeble to the New World: Monetary and Fiscal Establishments within the seventeenth By the nineteenth Centuries – Chapter 12 (PDF). Cambridge College Press. ISBN 9780521027274. ^ Greshko, Michael. “Did This Spanish Shipwreck Alternate the Route of History?”. Nationwide Geographic. ^ “José Celestino Mutis in New Granada: A life on the service of an Expedition (1760–1808)”. Right Jardín Botánico. ^ Angela Perez-Mejia (2004). A Geography of Strong Times: Narratives about Hurry to South The US, 1780–1849 – Fragment I: The scholar and the baron: Voyage of the actual sciences. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780791460139. ^ John Wilton Appel (1994). Francisco José de Caldas: A Scientist at Work in Nueva Granada. American Philosophical Society. 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(PDF) (in Spanish). ^ Alexander Walker (1822). (Gran) Colombia, relación geográfica, topográfica, agrícola, comercial y política de este país: Adaptada para todo lector en normal y para el comerciante y colono en particular, Quantity 1 (in Spanish). Banco de la República. ^ Sosa Abella, Guillermo (2009). “Los ciudadanos en la Constitución de Cúcuta – Citizenship within the Constitution of Cúcuta” (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia (icanh). ^ Mollien, Gaspard-Théodore, conde de, 1796–1872. “El viaje de Gaspard-Théodore Mollien por la República de Colombia en 1823. CAPÍTULO IX” (in Spanish). Biblioteca Digital del Banco de la República. ^ “Avatares de una Joven República – 2. La Constitución de Cúcuta” (in Spanish). Universidad de Antioquia. ^ a b Uribe, Jaime Jaramillo (1985). “”Etapas y sentido de la historia de Colombia.” Colombia hoy” (PDF) (in Spanish). Santa Fe de Bogotá : Presidencia de la República. ^ a b Blanco Blanco, Jacqueline (2007). “De la gran Colombia a la Nueva Granada, contexto histórico-político de la transición constitucional” (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. ^ a b Edgar Arana. “Historia Constitucional Colombiana” (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Libre Seccional Pereira. ^ Juan Fernando Londoño (2009). “Partidos políticos y mediate tanks en Colombia” (PDF) (in Spanish). World Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. p. 129. ISBN 9789185724734. ^ Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislación y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogotá: Lemer. pp. 428–442. ^ Restrepo, Eduardo (2006). “Abolitionist arguments in Colombia” (in Spanish). História Unisinos. pp. 293–306. ^ “Constituciones que han existido en Colombia” (in Spanish). Banco de la República. ^ Gonzalo España (2013). El país que se hizo a tiros (in Spanish). Penguin Random Home Grupo Editorial Colombia. 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FIFA ^ “Patinaje colombiano, el más ganador del mundo” (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 9 October 2013. ^ “Historic moments of the Colombian cycling” (in Spanish). antena2.com.co. ^ “The 2010 SF N World Assortment Batting Log for Edgar Renteria”. Retrosheet. Retrieved 21 March 2011. ^ “Recordando a nuestras glorias del béisbol” (in Spanish). eltiempo.com. Retrieved 9 October 2013. ^ “History of boxing in Colombia” (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014. ^ “Boxing champions” (in Spanish). boxeodecolombia.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014. ^ “Colombia vive esplendor deportivo inédito en su historia” (in Spanish). lafm.com.co. Retrieved 14 June 2016. ^ “History of the Colombian Olympic Committee.” (in Spanish). Colombian Olympic Committee. Retrieved 14 June 2016. ^ “El bolo colombiano ratificó su condición de potencia continental” (in Spanish). reporterosasociados.com.co. Retrieved 14 June 2016. ^ a b “21 Colombian clinics among the handiest 44 in Latin The US”. The US Economia magazine. Retrieved 9 June 2017. ^ “Ministra de Salud cube que la cobertura en este sector subió al 96%” (in Spanish). elpais.com.co. Retrieved 18 August 2013. ^ “Colombia Scientific Tourism”. mymedholiday.com. Retrieved eight March 2014. ^ Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Bearing on rights, guarantees, and duties – Chapter 2 – Bearing on social, economic and cultural rights – Article 67) ^ a b “Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo”. 29 June 2007. Archived from the brand new on 29 June 2007. ^ “UNESCO-UNEVOC World TVET Database”. Exterior hyperlinks General knowledge Colombia at Encyclopædia Britannica Colombia at UCB Libraries GovPubs Colombia at DMOZ “Colombia”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 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