Colombia Publicizes Independence from Spain (1810)

Colombia Publicizes Independence from Spain (1810)

No longer to be perplexed with Columbia (disambiguation). Republic of Colombia Motto: “Libertad y Orden” (Spanish)”Freedom and Dispute” Capitaland perfect city Bogotá4°35′N Seventy four°4′W / 4.583°N Seventy four.067°W Official languages Spanisha Diagnosed regional languages sixty eight ethnic languages and dialects. English is furthermore official within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina. Ethnic groups (2005[1][2]) Demonym Colombian Authorities Unitary presidential constitutional republic Juan Manuel Santos Óscar Naranjo • President of the Congress Mauricio Lizcano • President of the Supreme Court docket Margarita Cabello Blanco Legislature Congress Senate Chamber of Representatives Independence from Spain • Declared 20 July 1810 • Diagnosed 7 August 1819 • Final unitarisation 1886 4 July 1991 Situation • Entire 1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (Twenty fifth) • Water (%) eight.eight (17th) Inhabitants • June 2017 estimate 49,829,325[3] (28th) • 2005 census Forty two,888,592[3] • Density Forty.Seventy four/km2 (one zero five.5/sq mi) (173rd) GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate • Entire $720.151 billion[4] (Thirty first) • Per capita $14,609[4] GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate • Entire $306.439 billion[4] (32nd) • Per capita $6,216[4] Gini (2016)  fifty one.7[5]high HDI (2015)  zero.727[6]high · 95th Forex Peso (COP) Time zone COT (UTC−5b) Date format dd−mm−yyyy (CE) Drives on the accurate Calling code +fifty seven ISO 3166 code CO Web TLD .co Even if the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) because the official language in all Colombian territory, different languages spoken within the country by ethnic groups – approximately sixty eight languages – every is furthermore official in its occupy territory.[7] English is furthermore official within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[8] The official Colombian time [9] is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.[10] Colombia ( kə-LUM-biə or kə-LOM-biə; Spanish: [koˈlombja]), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: ),[Note 1] is a sovereign articulate largely located within the northwest of South The USA, with territories in Central The USA. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru.[11] It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.[12] It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia used to be within the foundation inhabited by indigenous peoples, with as most evolved the Muisca, Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish space foot on Colombian soil for the first time in 1499 and within the first half of of the Sixteenth century initiated a interval of conquest and colonization, finally creating the New Kingdom of Granada, with as capital Santafé de Bogotá. Independence from Spain used to be received in 1819, however by 1830 the “Gran Colombia” Federation used to be dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged because the Republic of New Granada. The unique nation experimented with federalism because the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the US of Colombia (1863), sooner than the Republic of Colombia used to be finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the Sixties, the country has suffered from an uneven low-depth armed war, which escalated within the Nineties however then decreased from 2005 onward.[13] Colombia is surely one of the well-known crucial ethnically and linguistically various international locations on the planet, and thereby possesses a effectively off cultural heritage. The urban centres are mostly located within the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory furthermore encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and each and every Caribbean and Pacific coastlines. Ecologically, it’s surely one of the well-known arena’s 17 megadiverse international locations, and the most densely biodiverse of those per sq. kilometer.[14] Colombia is a heart vitality and a regional actor with the fourth-perfect economic system in Latin The USA,[4] is a part of the CIVETS neighborhood of six leading rising markets and is a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, and different global organizations.[15] Colombia has a varied economic system with macroeconomic balance and generous affirm potentialities within the lengthy scuttle.[16][17] Etymology The title “Colombia” is derived from the final title of Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón). It used to be conceived by the Venezuelan progressive Francisco de Miranda as a reference to the general New World, however especially to those parts below Spanish and Portuguese rule. The title used to be later adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, fashioned from the territories of the used Viceroyalty of New Granada (current-day Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil).[18] When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca got right here to exist as honest states, the inclined Department of Cundinamarca adopted the title “Republic of New Granada”. New Granada officially modified its title in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the title used to be again modified, this time to United States of Colombia, sooner than finally adopting its verbalize title – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886.[18] To consult this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Historical previous Pre-Columbian era San Agustín Archaeological Park Owing to its plan, the verbalize territory of Colombia used to be a hall of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin. The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites within the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres (62 mi) southwest of Bogotá.[19] These sites date from the Paleoindian interval (18,000–8000 BCE). At Puerto Hormiga and different sites, traces from the Extinct Duration (~8000–2000 BCE) agree with been discovered. Vestiges verbalize that there used to be furthermore early occupation within the areas of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. The oldest pottery discovered within the Americas, discovered at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE.[20] Muisca raft. The decide refers to the ceremony of the fable of El Dorado. Indigenous people inhabited the territory that is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes on the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites come verbalize-day Bogotá traded with one one other and with different cultures from the Magdalena River Valley.[21] Between 5000 and A thousand BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies; mounted settlements agree with been established, and pottery seemed. Starting within the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political machine of cacicazgos with a pyramidal construction of vitality headed by caciques. The Muisca inhabited primarily the role of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) the keep they fashioned the Muisca Confederation. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring countries. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia within the isolated mountain differ of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.[22] The Quimbaya inhabited areas of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.[23] Many of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social construction of each and every indigenous neighborhood used to be different. Some groups of indigenous people such because the Caribs lived in a articulate of eternal wrestle, however others had less bellicose attitudes.[24] The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country.[25] Spanish conquest Routes of exploration and conquest. Alonso de Ojeda (who had sailed with Columbus) reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499.[26][27] Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration of the Caribbean cruise in 1500.[28]Christopher Columbus navigated come the Caribbean in 1502.[29] In 1508, Vasco Núñez de Balboa accompanied an expedition to the territory thru the role of Gulf of Urabá and they founded town of Santa María la Antigua del Darién in 1510, the first steady settlement on the continent. [Note 2][30] Santa Marta used to be founded in 1525,[31] and Cartagena in 1533.[32] Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada led an expedition to the internal in April 1536, and christened the districts by which he passed “New Kingdom of Granada”. In August 1538, he founded provisionally its capital come the Muisca cacicazgo of Bacatá, and named it “Santa Fe”. The title quickly received a suffix and used to be known as Santa Fe de Bogotá.[33][34] Two different critical journeys by early conquistadors to the internal took role within the identical interval. Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537;[35] from 1536 to 1539, German conquistador Nikolaus Federmann crossed the Llanos Orientales and went over the Cordillera Oriental in a glance for El Dorado, the “city of gold”.[36][37] The fable and the gold would play a pivotal operate in luring the Spanish and different Europeans to New Granada at some level of the Sixteenth and 17th centuries.[38] The conquistadors made frequent alliances with the enemies of different indigenous communities. Indigenous allies agree with been main to conquest, as effectively as to creating and placing forward empire.[39] Indigenous peoples in New Granada experienced a decline in inhabitants attributable to conquest as effectively as Eurasian diseases, similar to smallpox, to which they had no immunity.[40][41] With the possibility that the land used to be deserted, the Spanish Crown bought properties to all persons drawn to colonise territories creating optimistic farms and possession of mines.[42][43][44] Within the Sixteenth century, the nautical science in Spain reached a suited construction attributable to a suited substitute of scientific figures of the Casa de Contratación and nautical science used to be an a would possibly want to agree with pillar of the Iberian expansion.[45] Colonial interval In 1542, the role of New Granada, alongside with all different Spanish possessions in South The USA, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, with its capital at Lima.[46] In 1547, New Granada became the Captaincy-Overall of New Granada inside the viceroyalty. In 1549, the Royal Audiencia used to be created by a royal decree, and New Granada used to be ruled by the Royal Target audience of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which for the time being comprised the provinces of Santa Marta, Rio de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena.[47] But well-known decisions agree with been taken from the colony to Spain by the Council of the Indies.[48][49] Within the Sixteenth century, Europeans began to raise slaves from Africa. Spain used to be the most effective European vitality that could well well presumably not keep factories in Africa to buy slaves and attributable to this reality the Spanish empire relied on the asiento machine, awarding merchants (mostly from Portugal, France, England and the Dutch Empire) the license to substitute enslaved people to their in a foreign country territories.[51][52] Also there agree with been people that defended human rights and freedom of oppressed peoples.[Note 3][Note 4] The indigenous peoples could well well presumably not be enslaved on memoir of they agree with been legally themes of the Spanish Crown [57] and to supply protection to the indigenous peoples, plenty of kinds of land possession and regulation agree with been established: resguardos, encomiendas and haciendas.[42][43][44] Many psychological leaders of the independence route of participated within the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada. In 1717 the Viceroyalty of New Granada used to be within the foundation created, and then it used to be rapid eliminated, to finally be reestablished in 1739. The Viceroyalty had Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. This Viceroyalty incorporated some different provinces of northwestern South The USA which had beforehand been below the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond primarily to recently’s Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. So, Bogotá became surely one of the well-known famous administrative facilities of the Spanish possessions within the New World, alongside with Lima and Mexico City, even supposing it remained barely of backward in contrast to those two cities in plenty of economic and logistical ways.[58][59] After Massive Britain declared wrestle on Spain in 1739, Cartagena rapid became the British forces’ prime purpose however an upset Spanish victory at some level of the War of Jenkins’ Ear, a wrestle with Massive Britain for economic exhaust an eye on of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance within the Caribbean except the Seven Years’ War.[50][60] The 18th-century priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis used to be delegated by Viceroy Antonio Caballero y Góngora to behavior a list of the persona of the New Granada. Started in 1783, this became identified because the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which labeled flowers, wildlife and founded the first colossal observatory within town of Santa Fe de Bogotá.[61] In July 1801 the Prussian scientist Alexander von Humboldt reached Santa Fe de Bogotá the keep he met with Mutis. As effectively as, ancient figures during of independence in New Granada emerged from the expedition because the astronomer Francisco José de Caldas, the scientist Francisco Antonio Zea, the zoologist Jorge Tadeo Lozano and the painter Salvador Rizo.[62][63] Independence The Fight of Boyacá used to be the decisive wrestle which could well well sort decided that the success of the liberation campaign of New Granada. Since the beginning of the courses of conquest and colonization, there agree with been plenty of insurrection actions against Spanish rule, however most agree with been either beaten or remained too venerable to substitute the total space. The final person that sought outright independence from Spain sprang up spherical 1810, following the independence of St. Domingue (verbalize-day Haiti) in 1804, which supplied some toughen to an eventual leader of this come up: Simón Bolívar. Francisco de Paula Santander furthermore would play a decisive operate.[64][65][66] The Socorro Province used to be the positioning of the genesis of the independence route of. A circulation used to be initiated by Antonio Nariño, who antagonistic Spanish centralism and led the opposition against the Viceroyalty.[67]Cartagena became honest in November 1811.[68] In 1811 the United Provinces of New Granada agree with been proclaimed, headed by Camilo Torres Tenorio.[69][70] The emergence of two obvious ideological currents among the patriots (federalism and centralism) gave rise to a interval of instability.[71] Rapidly after the Napoleonic Wars ended, Ferdinand VII, nowadays restored to the throne in Spain, all accurate now decided to ship protection force forces to retake most of northern South The USA. The viceroyalty used to be restored below the snort of Juan Sámano, whose regime punished people who participated within the patriotic actions, ignoring the political nuances of the juntas.[72] The retribution stoked renewed come up, which, blended with a weakened Spain, made conceivable a a success come up led by the Venezuelan-born Simón Bolívar, who finally proclaimed independence in 1819.[73][74] The pro-Spanish resistance used to be defeated in 1822 within the verbalize territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela.[75][76][77] The territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Colombia, organized as a union of the unique territories of Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, aspects of Guyana and Brazil and north of Marañón River.[78] The Congress of Cúcuta in 1821 adopted a constitution for the unique Republic.[79][80] Simón Bolívar became the first President of Colombia, and Francisco de Paula Santander used to be made Vice President.[81] Nonetheless, the unique republic used to be unstable and three international locations emerged from the give intention of Gran Colombia in 1830 (New Granada, Ecuador and Venezuela).[82][83] Colombia used to be the first constitutional government in South The USA,[84] and the Liberal and Conservative parties, founded in 1848 and 1849 respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties within the Americas.[85]Slavery used to be abolished within the country in 1851.[86][87] Inner political and territorial divisions resulted in the dissolution of Gran Colombia in 1830.[82][83] The so-known as “Department of Cundinamarca” adopted the title “New Granada”, which it saved except 1858 when it became the “Confederación Granadina” (Granadine Confederation). After a two-365 days civil wrestle in 1863, the “United States of Colombia” used to be created, lasting except 1886, when the country finally became identified because the Republic of Colombia.[84][88] Inner divisions remained between the bipartisan political forces, every so in most cases igniting very bloody civil wars, the largest being the Thousand Days’ War (1899–1902).[89] 20th century The USA of The USA’s intentions to handbook the role (especially the Panama Canal construction and exhaust an eye on) resulted in the separation of the Department of Panama in 1903 and the establishment of it as a nation.[90] The USA paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt’s operate within the introduction of Panama, and Colombia known Panama below the terms of the Thomson–Urrutia Treaty.[91] Colombia used to be engulfed within the wrestle with Peru over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas Department and its capital Leticia.[92] Soon after, Colombia done some stage of political balance, which used to be interrupted by a bloody war that took role between the uninteresting Nineteen Forties and the early Nineteen Fifties, a interval identified as La Violencia (“The Violence”). Its cause used to be primarily mounting tensions between the 2 leading political parties, which therefore ignited after the assassination of the Liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948.[93][94] The ensuing riots in Bogotá, identified as El Bogotazo, spread at some level of the country and claimed the lives of no longer less than A hundred and eighty,000 Colombians.[95] Colombia entered the Korean War when Laureano Gómez used to be elected president. It used to be the most effective Latin American country to model up for the wrestle in an on the spot protection force operate as an ally of the US. Particularly well-known used to be the resistance of the Colombian troops at Aged Baldy.[96] The violence between the 2 political parties decreased first when Gustavo Rojas deposed the President of Colombia in a coup d’état and negotiated with the guerrillas, and then below the protection force junta of Overall Gabriel París.[97][98] The Axis of Peace and Reminiscence: A “memorial” in recognition of the victims of the war After Rojas’ deposition, the Colombian Conservative Occasion and Colombian Liberal Occasion agreed to fabricate the “National Front”, a coalition which could well well collectively govern the country. Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for sixteen years; the 2 parties would agree with parity in all different optionally available within the market locations of work.[99] The National Front ended “La Violencia”, and National Front administrations tried to institute a ways-reaching social and economic reforms in cooperation with the Alliance for Development.[100][101] Despite the growth in decided sectors, many social and political complications continued, and guerrilla groups agree with been formally created such because the FARC, the ELN and the M-19 to wrestle the government and political apparatus.[102] Since the Sixties, the country has suffered from an uneven low-depth armed war between the government forces, left-soar guerrilla groups and appropriate-soar paramilitaries.[103] The war escalated within the Nineties,[104] primarily in a ways away rural areas.[105] Since the beginning of the armed war, human rights defenders agree with fought for the respect for human rights, despite staggering opposition.[Note 5][Note 6] Quite so a lot of guerrillas’ organizations decided to demobilize after peace negotiations in 1989–1994.[13] The USA has been carefully serious in regards to the war since its beginnings, when within the early Sixties the U.S. government encouraged the Colombian protection force to assault leftist militias in rural Colombia. This used to be part of the U.S. wrestle against communism.[103][13][109] On 4 July 1991, a unique Constitution used to be promulgated. The changes generated by the unique constitution are viewed as decided by Colombian society.[110][111] twenty first century The administration of President Álvaro Uribe (2002–10), adopted the democratic security policy which incorporated an constructed-in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency campaign.[112] The Authorities economic conception furthermore promoted self belief in patrons.[113] As part of a controversial peace route of the AUC (appropriate-soar paramilitaries) as a formal organization had ceased to operate.[114] In February 2008, millions of Colombians demonstrated against FARC and different outlawed groups.[115] After peace negotiations in Cuba, the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and guerrilla of FARC-EP launched consensus on a 6-level conception against peace.[116] The first peace accord used to be submitted to voters in a nationwide referendum and used to be rejected with 50.2% balloting against it and 49.eight% balloting in desire, on a 37.4% turnout.[117][118] Afterward, the Colombian government and the FARC signed a revised peace deal in November 2016,[119] which the Colombian congress licensed.[120] The Authorities began a route of of assistance, consideration and comprehensive reparation for victims of war.[121][122] In 2016, President Santos used to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.[123] Colombia reveals modest growth within the wrestle to defend human rights, as expressed by HRW.[124] By technique of world family, Colombia and Venezuela agree with agreed to revive diplomatic family.[125] Colombia with a actually tidy electrical energy expertise matrix reaffirms its toughen for the Paris Climate Settlement.[126] Geography Reduction plan The geography of Colombia is characterised by its six main pure areas that verbalize their occupy genuine traits, from the Andes mountain differ role shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal role shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal role shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos (plains) shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest role shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular role, comprising islands in each and every the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.[127] Colombia is bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[11] it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring international locations thru seven agreements on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean.[12] It lies between latitudes 12°N and 4°S, and longitudes 67° and Seventy 9°W. Segment of the Ring of Fire, a job of the arena subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions,[128] Colombia is dominated by the Andes (which occupy the bulk of the country’s urban centres). Beyond the Colombian Massif (within the south-western departments of Cauca and Nariño) these are divided into three branches identified as cordilleras (mountain ranges): the Cordillera Occidental, working adjacent to the Pacific cruise and including town of Cali; the Cordillera Central, working between the Cauca and Magdalena River valleys (to the west and east respectively) and including the cities of Medellín, Manizales, Pereira and Armenia; and the Cordillera Oriental, extending north east to the Guajira Peninsula and including Bogotá, Bucaramanga and Cúcuta.[127][129][130] Peaks within the Cordillera Occidental exceed 4,Seven hundred m (15,420 ft), and within the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental they reach 5,000 m (sixteen,404 ft). At 2,600 m (eight,530 ft), Bogotá is absolutely the top city of its size on the planet.[127] East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanos, part of the Orinoco River basin, and, within the a ways south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. Together these lowlands comprise over half of Colombia’s territory, however they occupy less than 6% of the inhabitants. To the north the Caribbean cruise, dwelling to 21.9% of the inhabitants and the positioning of the main port cities of Barranquilla and Cartagena, on the entire contains low-lying plains, however it furthermore incorporates the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain differ, which incorporates the country’s tallest peaks (Pico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar), and the La Guajira Desolate tract. In incompatibility the slender and discontinuous Pacific coastal lowlands, backed by the Serranía de Baudó mountains, are in moderation populated and covered in dense vegetation. The famous Pacific port is Buenaventura.[127][129][130] The main rivers of Colombia are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare, Atrato, Meta, Putumayo and Caquetá. Colombia has four main drainage systems: the Pacific drain, the Caribbean drain, the Orinoco Basin and the Amazon Basin. The Orinoco and Amazon Rivers model limits with Colombia to Venezuela and Peru respectively.[131] Protected areas and the “National Park Diagram” duvet an role of about 14,268,224 hectares (142,682.24 km2) and memoir for 12.seventy seven% of the Colombian territory.[132] When put next to neighboring international locations, rates of deforestation in Colombia are aloof moderately low.[133] Colombia is the sixth country on the planet by magnitude of total renewable freshwater provide, and aloof has optimistic reserves of freshwater.[134] Climate The climate of Colombia is characterised for being tropical presenting variations inside six pure areas and counting on the altitude, temperature, humidity, winds and rainfall.[135] The range of climate zones in Colombia is characterised for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate. Mountain climate is surely one of the well-known genuine aspects of the Andes and different high altitude reliefs the keep climate is dependent upon elevation. Under 1,000 meters (three,281 ft) in elevation is the warmth altitudinal zone, the keep temperatures are above 24 °C (75.2 °F). About eighty two.5% of the country’s total role lies within the warmth altitudinal zone. The temperate climate altitudinal zone located between 1,001 and 2,000 meters (three,284 and 6,562 ft)) is characterised for presenting an moderate temperature ranging between 17 and 24 °C (62.6 and 75.2 °F). The frigid climate is verbalize between 2,001 and three,000 meters (6,565 and 9,843 ft) and the temperatures vary between 12 and 17 °C (53.6 and 62.6 °F). Beyond the frigid land lie the alpine prerequisites of the forested zone and then the treeless grasslands of the páramos. Above 4,000 meters (Thirteen,123 ft), the keep temperatures are under freezing, the climate is glacial, a zone of eternal snow and ice.[135] Alpine tundra climate within the Sumapaz Paramo Tropical savanna climate in Los Llanos Tropical moist and dry climate in San Andrés y Providencia Biodiversity Chlorochrysa nitidissima. Colombia is dwelling to more chicken species than any different country on the planet. Foremost article: Biodiversity of Colombia The nationwide flower of Colombia is the orchid Cattleya trianae, which used to be named after the Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.[136] Colombia is surely one of the well-known megadiverse international locations in biodiversity,[137] ranking first in chicken species.[138] As for flowers, the country has between Forty,000 and forty five,000 plant species, equivalent to 10 or 20% of total world species, right here is a lot more outstanding given that Colombia is regarded as a country of intermediate size.[139] Colombia is the second most biodiverse country on the planet, lagging only after Brazil which is approximately 7 conditions greater.[14] Colombia is the country within the planet more characterised by a high biodiversity, with the absolute top payment of species by role unit worldwide and it has the largest substitute of endemisms (species that are no longer discovered naturally wherever else) of any country. About 10% of the species of the Earth are living in Colombia, including over 1,900 species of chicken, more than in Europe and North The USA blended, Colombia has 10% of the arena’s mammals species, 14% of the amphibian species and 18% of the chicken species of the arena.[140] Colombia has about 2,000 species of marine fish and is the second most various country in freshwater fish. Colombia is the country with more endemic species of butterflies, quantity one in terms of orchid species and approximately 7,000 species of beetles. Colombia is second within the substitute of amphibian species and is the zero.33 most various country in reptiles and hands. There are about 1,900 species of mollusks and in step with estimates there are about 300,000 species of invertebrates within the country. In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and 314 kinds of ecosystems.[141][142] Authorities and politics Foremost article: Authorities of Colombia The government of Colombia takes role inside the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established within the Constitution of 1991.[111] Basically primarily based on the thought of separation of powers, government is split into three branches: the government branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch.[143] As the head of the government branch, the President of Colombia serves as each and every head of articulate and head of government, adopted by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers. The president is elected by current vote to assist four-365 days time frame (In 2015, Colombia’s Congress licensed the repeal of a 2004 constitutional amendment that eliminated the one-time frame limit for presidents).[144] At the provincial stage government vitality is vested in department governors, municipal mayors and native directors for smaller administrative subdivisions, similar to corregimientos or comunas.[145] All regional elections are held one 365 days and five months after the presidential election.[146][147] The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congress, a bicameral establishment comprising a 166-seat Chamber of Representatives and a 102-seat Senate.[148][149] The Senate is elected nationally and the Chamber of Representatives is elected in electoral districts.[150] Participants of each and every properties are elected to assist four-365 days terms two months sooner than the president, furthermore by current vote.[151] Colombia’s Palace of Justice The judicial branch is headed by four high courts,[152] consisting of the Supreme Court docket which offers with penal and civil issues, the Council of Grunt, which has special accountability for administrative regulation and furthermore presents appropriate recommendation to the government, the Constitutional Court docket, in management of assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Beneficial Council of Judicature, in management of auditing the judicial branch.[153] Colombia operates a machine of civil regulation, which since 2005 has been applied thru an adversarial machine. Despite a substitute of controversies, the democratic security policy has ensured that inclined President Uribe remained current among Colombian people, alongside with his approval ranking peaking at seventy six%, in step with a pollin 2009.[154] Nonetheless, having served two terms, he used to be constitutionally barred from within the hunt for re-election in 2010.[155] Within the scuttle-off elections on 20 June 2010 the inclined Minister of protection Juan Manuel Santos received with sixty 9% of the vote against the second most smartly-preferred candidate, Antanas Mockus. A second spherical used to be required since no candidate bought over the 50% winning threshold of votes.[156] Santos received nearly fifty one% of the vote in second-spherical elections on 15 June 2014, beating appropriate-soar rival Óscar Iván Zuluaga, who received forty five%. His time frame as Colombia’s president runs for four years beginning 7 August 2014.[157] International affairs The VI Summit of the Pacific Alliance: President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left. See furthermore: Diplomatic missions of Colombia The foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of articulate, and managed by the Minister of International Affairs.[158] Colombia has diplomatic missions in all continents.[159] Colombia used to be surely one of the well-known 4 founding members of the Pacific Alliance, which is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of items, products and companies, capital and persons between the members, as effectively as a total stock substitute and joint embassies in plenty of international locations.[160] Colombia is furthermore a member of the United Nations, the World Alternate Organization, the Organization of American States, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union of South American Nations and the Andean Community of Nations.[161][162][163][164] Colombia is a world associate of NATO.[165] Colombia is for the time being within the accession route of with the OECD.[166] Protection force The government branch of government is in management of managing the protection of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of the protection force. The Ministry of Defence exercises day-to-day exhaust an eye on of the protection force and the Colombian National Police. Colombia has 455,461 tantalizing protection force personnel.[167] And in 2016 three.4% of the country’s GDP went against protection force expenditure, placing it 24th on the planet. Colombia’s protection force are the largest in Latin The USA, and it’s the second perfect spender on its protection force after Brazil.[168][169] The Colombian protection force is split into three branches: the National Military of Colombia; the Colombian Air Pressure; and the Colombian Navy. The National Police capabilities as a gendarmerie, working independently from the protection force because the regulation enforcement agency for your total country. Every of those operates with their occupy intelligence apparatus decrease loose the National Intelligence Directorate (DNI, in Spanish).[170] The National Military is fashioned by divisions, brigades, special brigades and special objects;[171] the Colombian Navy by the Naval Infantry, the Naval Pressure of the Caribbean, the Naval Pressure of the Pacific, the Naval Pressure of the South, the Naval Pressure of the East, Colombia Waft Guards, Naval Aviation and the Explicit Sigh of San Andres y Providencia;[172] and the Air Pressure by 15 air objects.[173] The National Police has a presence in all municipalities. Administrative divisions Colombia is split into 32 departments and one capital district, which is handled as a department (Bogotá furthermore serves because the capital of the department of Cundinamarca). Departments are subdivided into municipalities, every of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in flip subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas. Every department has a local government with a governor and meeting straight elected to four-365 days terms, and every municipality is headed by a mayor and council. There could be a popularly elected native administrative board in every of the corregimientos or comunas.[174][175][176][177] As effectively as to the capital four different cities agree with been designated districts (in attain special municipalities), on the thought that of special distinguishing aspects. These are Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Buenaventura. Some departments agree with native administrative subdivisions, the keep towns agree with a suited focus of inhabitants and municipalities are come every different (as an illustration in Antioquia and Cundinamarca). Where departments agree with a low inhabitants (as an illustration Amazonas, Vaupés and Vichada), special administrative divisions are employed, similar to “department corregimientos”, that are a hybrid of a municipality and a corregimiento.[174][175] Click on a department on the plan under to transfer to its article. Economy Colombia’s nasty domestic product by sector for the second half of of the 365 days 2015 Historically an agrarian economic system, Colombia urbanised all accurate now within the 20th century, by the close of which precise 15.eight% of the workforce agree with been employed in agriculture, generating precise 6.eight% of GDP; 19.6% of the workforce agree with been employed in substitute and sixty four.6% in products and companies, in management of and Fifty 9.2% of GDP respectively.[178][179] The country’s economic manufacturing is dominated by its solid domestic question. Consumption expenditure by households is the largest component of GDP.[180][16][181] Colombia’s market economic system grew continuously within the latter part of the 20th century, with nasty domestic product (GDP) rising at an moderate payment of over 4% per 365 days between 1970 and 1998. The country suffered a recession in 1999 (the first pudgy 365 days of negative affirm for the explanation that Massive Despair), and the restoration from that recession used to be lengthy and painful. Nonetheless, in unique years affirm has been spectacular, reaching 6.9% in 2007, surely one of the well-known absolute top rates of affirm in Latin The USA.[182] Basically primarily based on World Monetary Fund estimates, in 2012 Colombia’s GDP (PPP) used to be US$500 billion (28th on the planet and nil.33 in South The USA). Entire government expenditures memoir for 28.7 percent of the domestic economic system. Public debt equals Forty one percent of nasty domestic product. A solid fiscal climate used to be reaffirmed by a exhaust in bond ratings.[183][184][185] Annual inflation closed 2016 at 5.75% YoY (vs. 6.seventy seven% YoY in 2015).[186] The moderate nationwide unemployment payment in 2016 used to be 9.2%,[187] even supposing the informality is the most effective anguish coping with the labour market (the earnings of formal workers climbed 24.eight% in 5 years whereas labor incomes of informal workers rose only 9%).[188] Colombia has Free substitute Zone (FTZ),[189] similar to Zona Franca del Pacifico, located within the Valle del Cauca, surely one of the well-known crucial placing areas for foreign funding.[190] The monetary sector has grown favorably attributable to accurate liquidity within the economic system, the affirm of credit ranking and the decided efficiency of the Colombian economic system.[17][191][192] The Colombian Stock Change thru the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA) presents a regional market to substitute equities.[193][194] Colombia is now surely one of only three economies with a supreme get hang of on the ability of appropriate rights index, in step with the World Monetary institution.[195] The Colombian Stock Change is a part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).[196] The electrical energy manufacturing in Colombia comes primarily from renewable vitality sources. sixty 9.97% is bought from the hydroelectric expertise.[197] Colombia’s dedication to renewable vitality used to be known within the 2014 World Inexperienced Economy Index (GGEI), ranking among the tip 10 countries on the planet in terms of greening efficiency sectors.[198] Colombia is effectively off in pure resources, and its main exports encompass mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, fruit and different agricultural products, sugars and sugar confectionery, food products, plastics, precious stones, metals, woodland products, chemical items, prescribed tablets, autos, electronic products, electrical equipments, perfumery and cosmetics, equipment, manufactured articles, textile and materials, garments and shoes, glass and glassware, furnishings, prefabricated structures, protection force products, dwelling and place of job subject cloth, construction tools, machine, among others.[199] Predominant trading companions are the US, China, the European Union and some Latin American international locations.[200][201] Non-veteran exports agree with boosted the affirm of Colombian foreign gross sales as effectively because the diversification of destinations of export attributable to unique free substitute agreements.[202] In 2016, the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) reported that of the inhabitants agree with been living under the poverty line, of which eight.5% in “low poverty”.[5] The Authorities has furthermore been setting up a route of of monetary inclusion inside the country’s most inclined inhabitants.[203] Contemporary economic affirm has resulted in a substantial sort greater of unique millionaires, including the unique entrepreneurs, Colombians with a win price exceeding US $1 billion.[204][205] The contribution of Hasten & Tourism to GDP used to be USD5,880.3bn ( of total GDP) in 2016. Tourism generated 556,a hundred thirty five jobs (2.5% of total employment) in 2016.[206] International tourist visits agree with been predicted to agree with risen from zero.6 million in 2007 to 2.ninety eight million in 2015.[207][208] Science and expertise Foremost article: Science and expertise in Colombia COLCIENCIAS is a Colombian Authorities agency that supports main and applied compare. Colombia has more than three,950 compare groups in science and expertise.[209] iNNpulsa, a government body that promotes entrepreneurship and innovation within the country, presents grants to startups, as effectively as to different products and companies it and institutions delight in provide. Co-working areas agree with arisen to assist as communities for startups optimistic and microscopic.[210][211] Organizations such because the Company for Natural Research (CIB) for the toughen of children drawn to scientific work has been successfully developed in Colombia.[212] The World Center for Tropical Agriculture based entirely mostly in Colombia investigates the rising ache of world warming and food security.[213] Well-known inventions linked to the medication agree with been made in Colombia, such because the first external synthetic pacemaker with internal electrodes, invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo, invention of optimistic importance for people who endure from coronary heart failure. Also invented in Colombia agree with been the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique, which fabricate the main basis of what now could well well presumably be identified as LASIK (surely one of the well-known largest ways for the correction of refractive errors of vision) and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus, among others.[214] Colombia has begun to innovate in protection force expertise for its navy and different armies of the arena; especially within the invent and introduction of non-public ballistic safety products, protection force hardware, protection force robots, bombs, simulators and radar.[215][216][217] Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. Tohme, researcher known for his work on the genetic diversity of food, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo who is identified for his groundbreaking work on synthetic vaccines for malaria, Francisco Lopera who discovered the “Paisa Mutation” or a fabricate of early-onset Alzheimer’s,[218]Rodolfo Llinás identified for his respect of the intrinsic neurons properties and the thought of a syndrome that had modified the technique of working out the functioning of the brain, Jairo Quiroga Puello known for his reviews on the characterization of man-made substances that could well well presumably furthermore be aged to wrestle fungus, tumors, tuberculosis and even some viruses and Ángela Restrepo who established appropriate diagnoses and coverings to fight the effects of a illness induced by the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, among different scientists.[219][220][221] Infrastructure Port of Cartagena. Transportation in Colombia is regulated inside the capabilities of the Ministry of Transport [222] and entities such because the National Roads Institute (INVÍAS) in management of the Highways in Colombia (Thirteen,000 km),[223] the Aerocivil, in management of civil aviation and airports,[224] the National Infrastructure Company, in management of concessions thru public–non-public partnerships, for the invent, construction, maintenance, operation, and administration of the transport infrastructure,[225] the Overall Maritime Directorate (Dimar) has the accountability of coordinating maritime visitors exhaust an eye on alongside with the Colombian Navy,[226] among others and below the supervision of the Superintendency of Ports and Transport.[227] The purpose of Colombia’s government is to fetch 7,000 km of roads for the 2016–2020 interval and decrease tear conditions by 30 per cent and transport prices by 20 per cent. A toll street concession programme will comprise Forty projects, and is a part of a increased strategic operate to make investments nearly $50bn in transport infrastructure, including: railway systems; making the Magdalena river navigable again; improving port facilities; as effectively as a spread of Bogotá’s airport.[228] Demographics Foremost article: Demographics of Colombia Inhabitants density of Colombia With an estimated 49 million people in 2017, Colombia is the zero.33-most populous country in Latin The USA, after Brazil and Mexico.[3] It’s furthermore dwelling to the zero.33-perfect substitute of Spanish speakers on the planet after Mexico and the US.[229] Before the entire lot of the 20th century, Colombia’s inhabitants used to be approximately 4 million.[230] Since the early Seventies Colombia has experienced in fashion declines in its fertility, mortality, and inhabitants affirm rates. The inhabitants affirm payment for 2015 is estimated to be zero.9%.[231] The total fertility payment used to be 1.9 births per lady in 2015.[232] About 26.eight% of the inhabitants agree with been 15 years used or youthful, sixty five.7% agree with been between 15 and sixty four years used, and seven.4% agree with been over sixty five years used. The proportion of older persons within the entire inhabitants has begun to sort greater substantially.[233] Colombia is projected to agree with a inhabitants of 50.2 million by 2020 and fifty five.three million by 2050.[234] The inhabitants is targeted within the Andean highlands and alongside the Caribbean cruise, furthermore the inhabitants densities are on the entire greater within the Andean role. The 9 jap lowland departments, comprising about 54% of Colombia’s role, agree with less than 6% of the inhabitants.[129][130] Traditionally a rural society, circulation to urban areas used to be very heavy within the mid-20th century, and Colombia is now surely one of the well-known crucial urbanized international locations in Latin The USA. The urban inhabitants increased from 31% of the entire in 1938 to nearly 60% in 1973, and by 2014 the decide stood at seventy six%.[235][236] The inhabitants of Bogotá on my own has increased from precise over 300,000 in 1938 to approximately eight million recently.[237] In total seventy-two cities now agree with populations of 100,000 or more (2015).[238] As of 2012 Colombia has the arena’s perfect populations of internally displaced persons (IDPs), estimated to be as a lot as 4.9 million people.[239] The lifestyles expectancy is Seventy four.eight years in 2015 and toddler mortality is Thirteen.6 per thousand in 2015.[240][241] In 2015, 94.Fifty eight% of adults and ninety eight.66% of youth are literate and the government spends about 4.49% of its GDP in training.[242] Colombia is ranked zero.33 on the planet within the Entirely tickled Planet Index. Languages More than ninety 9.2% of Colombians talk Spanish, furthermore identified as Castilian; sixty five Amerindian languages, two Creole languages, the Romani language and Colombian Signal Language are furthermore spoken within the country. English has official plan within the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[8][243][244][245] Including Spanish, a total of 101 languages are listed for Colombia within the Ethnologue database. The pronounce substitute of spoken languages varies barely of since some authors engage into consideration as different languages what others engage into consideration to be forms or dialects of the identical language. Absolute top estimates recorded 71 languages that are spoken in-country recently—most of which belong to the Chibchan, Tucanoan, Bora–Witoto, Guajiboan, Arawakan, Cariban, Barbacoan, and Saliban language households. There are for the time being about 850,000 speakers of native languages.[246][247] Ethnic groups Foremost article: Human organic diversity and ethnicity in Colombia Colombia is ethnically various, its people descending from the normal native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans within the foundation introduced to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Center East, all contributing to a various cultural heritage.[248] The demographic distribution shows a sample that is influenced by colonial history.[249] Whites have a tendency to are living primarily in urban facilities, delight in Bogotá, Medellín or Cali, and the burgeoning highland cities. The populations of the main cities furthermore encompass mestizos. Mestizo campesinos (people living in rural areas) furthermore are living within the Andean highlands the keep some Spanish conquerors blended with the girls folk of Amerindian chiefdoms. Mestizos encompass artisans and microscopic tradesmen that agree with played a well-known part within the urban expansion of unique a long time.[250] The 2005 census reported that the “non-ethnic inhabitants”, consisting of whites and mestizos (those of blended white European and Amerindian ancestry), constituted 86% of the nationwide inhabitants. 10.6% is of African ancestry. Indigenous Amerindians comprise three.4% of the inhabitants. zero.01% of the inhabitants are Roma. An extraofficial estimate considers that the 49% of the Colombian inhabitants is Mestizo or of blended European and Amerindian ancestry, and that approximately 37% is White, primarily of Spanish lineage, however there could be furthermore a suited inhabitants of Center East descent; in some sectors of society there is a substantial enter of Italian and German ancestry.[2] Folks with African ancestry in Colombia are concentrated mostly in coastal areas. Amerindian inhabitants of Colombia by municipality in 2005. Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a discount in inhabitants at some level of the Spanish rule [251] and many others agree with been absorbed into the mestizo inhabitants, however the leisure for the time being represents over eighty obvious cultures. Reserves (resguardos) established for indigenous peoples take hang of 30,571,640 hectares (305,716.4 km2) (27% of the country’s total) and are inhabited by more than 800,000 people.[252] One of the crucial largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu,[253] the Paez, the Pastos, the Emberá and the Zenú.[254] The departments of La Guajira, Cauca, Nariño, Córdoba and Sucre agree with the largest indigenous populations.[1] The Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia (ONIC), founded on the first National Indigenous Congress in 1982, is a firm representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia. In 1991, Colombia signed and ratified the unique global regulation pertaining to indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989.[255] Gloomy Africans agree with been introduced as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early within the Sixteenth century and continuing into the Nineteenth century. Extensive Afro-Colombian communities are discovered recently on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The inhabitants of the department of Chocó, working alongside the northern fraction of Colombia’s Pacific cruise, is over 80% unlit.[256]British and Jamaicans migrated primarily to the islands of San Andres and Providencia. A substitute of different Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country within the uninteresting Nineteenth and early 20th centuries, including people from the inclined USSR at some level of and after the 2d World War.[258] Many immigrant communities agree with settled on the Caribbean cruise, in pronounce unique immigrants from the Center East. Barranquilla (the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean) and different Caribbean cities agree with the largest populations of Lebanese, Palestinian, and different Arabs.[259][260] There are furthermore well-known communities of Chinese language, Eastern, Romanis and Jews.[248] There could be a well-known migration pattern of Venezuelans, attributable to the political and economic space in Venezuela.[261][262] Faith See furthermore: Freedom of faith in Colombia The Las Lajas Sanctuary within the southern Colombian Department of Nariño The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does no longer gain religious statistics, and appropriate reviews are annoying to attain. Nonetheless, in step with varied reviews and a scrutinize, about ninety% of the inhabitants adheres to Christianity, the bulk of which (70.9%) are Roman Catholic, whereas a well-known minority (sixteen.7%) adhere to Protestantism (primarily Evangelicalism). Some 4.7% of the inhabitants is atheist or agnostic, whereas three.5% claim to contemplate in God however attain no longer practice a pronounce faith. 1.eight% of Colombians adhere to Jehovah’s Witnesses and Adventism and no more than 1% adhere to different religions, similar to Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Mormonism, Hinduism, Indigenous religions, Hare Krishna circulation, Rastafari circulation, Orthodox Catholic Church, and religious reviews. The closing people either did no longer answer or answered that they didn’t know. As effectively as to the above statistics, 35.9% of Colombians reported that they didn’t practice their faith actively.[263][264][265] While Colombia stays a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the 1991 Colombian constitution ensures freedom of faith and all religious faiths and church buildings are equally free sooner than the regulation.[266] Largest cities Colombia is a highly urbanized country. One of the best cities within the country are Bogotá, with an estimated eight million inhabitants, Medellín, with an estimated 2.5 million inhabitants, Cali, with an estimated 2.4 million inhabitants, and Barranquilla, with an estimated 1.2 million inhabitants. Cartagena highlights in substitute of inhabitants and town of Bucaramanga is relevant in terms of metropolitan role inhabitants.[238] Largest cities or towns in ColombiaNational Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), 2016 projections[238] Scandalous Name Department Pop. Scandalous Name Department Pop. BogotáMedellín 1 Bogotá Bogotá 7,963,379 Eleven Santa Marta Magdalena 474,520 CaliBarranquilla 2 Medellín Antioquia 2,457,680 12 Villavicencio Meta 471,383 three Cali Valle del Cauca 2,358,302 Thirteen Bello Antioquia 458,196 4 Barranquilla Atlántico 1,219,382 14 Pereira Risaralda 398,719 5 Cartagena Bolívar 971,592 15 Valledupar Cesar 395,860 6 Cúcuta Norte de Santander 634,276 sixteen Buenaventura Valle del Cauca 373,717 7 Soledad Atlántico 631,599 17 Pasto Nariño 371,045 eight Ibagué Tolima 528,214 18 Manizales Caldas 369,981 9 Bucaramanga Santander 521,857 19 Montería Córdoba 346,873 10 Soacha Cundinamarca 516,435 20 Neiva Huila 324,375 Custom Colombia lies on the crossroads of Latin The USA and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a extensive differ of cultural influences. Native American, Spanish and different European, African, American, Caribbean, and Center Eastern influences, as effectively as different Latin American cultural influences, are all verbalize in Colombia’s current custom. Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and different political, social and economic changes agree with furthermore left an impact. Many nationwide symbols, each and every objects and themes, agree with arisen from Colombia’s various cultural traditions and purpose to indicate what Colombia, and the Colombian people, agree with on the entire. Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government thru the Ministry of Custom. Literature Foremost article: Colombian literature Jorge Isaacs used to be surely one of the well-known perfect exponents of Colombian literature within the nineteenth century. Colombian literature dates assist to pre-Columbian era; a critical instance of the interval is the fable poem identified because the Tale of Yurupary.[268] In Spanish colonial conditions, critical writers encompass Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias), Hernando Domínguez Camargo and his fable poem to San Ignacio de Loyola, Pedro Simón, Juan Rodríguez Freyle (El Carnero),[269] Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita, and the nun Francisca Josefa de Castillo, consultant of mysticism. Put up-independence literature linked to Romanticism highlighted Antonio Nariño, José Fernández Madrid, Camilo Torres Tenorio and Francisco Antonio Zea.[270][271] Within the second half of of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the literary genre identified as costumbrismo became current; optimistic writers of this era agree with been Tomás Carrasquilla, Jorge Isaacs and Rafael Pombo (the latter of whom wrote critical works of younger people’s literature).[272][273] Within that interval, authors similar to José Asunción Silva, José Eustasio Rivera, León de Greiff, Porfirio Barba-Jacob and José María Vargas Vila developed the modernist circulation.[274][275][276] In 1872, Colombia established the Colombian Academy of Language, the first Spanish language academy within the Americas.[277] Candelario Obeso wrote the groundbreaking Cantos Populares de mi Tierra (1877), the first book of poetry by an Afro-Colombian author.[278][279] Between 1939 and 1940 seven books of poetry agree with been printed below the title Stone and Sky within town of Bogotá that considerably impacted the country; they agree with been edited by the poet Jorge Rojas.[280] Within the following decade, Gonzalo Arango founded the circulation of “nothingness” in accordance with the violence of the time;[281] he used to be influenced by nihilism, existentialism, and the thought to be one other optimistic Colombian author: Fernando González Ochoa.[282] Within the route of the affirm in Latin American literature, a success writers emerged, led by Nobel laureate Gabriel García Márquez and his magnum opus, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, Manuel Mejía Vallejo, and Álvaro Mutis, a author who used to be awarded the Cervantes Prize and the Prince of Asturias Award for Letters.[283][284] Rather a couple of leading novel authors are Fernando Vallejo, William Ospina (Rómulo Gallegos Prize) and Germán Castro Caycedo. Visible arts Foremost article: Colombian art work Colombian art work has over three,000 years of history. Colombian artists agree with captured the country’s changing political and cultural backdrop using a range of kinds and mediums. There could be archeological proof of ceramics being produced earlier in Colombia than wherever else within the Americas, relationship as early as three,000 BCE.[285][286] The earliest examples of gold craftsmanship agree with been attributed to the Tumaco people [287] of the Pacific cruise and date to spherical 325 BCE. Roughly between 200 BCE and 800 CE, the San Agustín custom, masters of stonecutting, entered its “classical interval”. They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi, and optimistic stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphhic kinds out of stone.[286][288] Colombian art work has adopted the trends of the time, so at some level of the Sixteenth to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had a broad have an effect on on Colombian art work, and the appreciated baroque fashion used to be modified with rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown.[289][290] More nowadays, Colombian artists Pedro Nel Gómez and Santiago Martínez Delgado started the Colombian Murial Scoot within the Nineteen Forties, featuring the neoclassical aspects of Art Deco.[285][286][291][292] Since the Nineteen Fifties, the Colombian art work started to agree with a distinctive level of behold, reinventing veteran aspects below the ideas of the 20th century. Examples of this are the Greiff portraits by Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo, showing what the Colombian art work could well well presumably attain with the unique ways applied to typical Colombian themes. Carlos Correa, alongside with his paradigmatic “Naturaleza muerta en silencio” (silent dreary nature), combines geometrical abstraction and cubism. Alejandro Obregón is in total regarded as because the daddy of current Colombian portray, and surely one of the well-known crucial influential artist on this era, attributable to his originality, the portray of Colombian landscapes with symbolic and expressionist use of animals, (specially the Andean condor).[286][293][294]Fernando Botero, Omar Rayo, Enrique Grau, Édgar Negret, David Manzur, Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt and Oscar Murillo are one of the well-known Colombian artists featured on the global stage.[285][295][296][297] The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries used to be mostly dedicated to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art work, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture. Within the route of the early interval of the Colombian republic, the nationwide artists agree with been focused within the manufacturing of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a frightful neoclassicist pattern.[298] Within the route of the 20th century, the Colombian sculpture began to fabricate a dauntless and modern work with the aim of reaching a nearer working out of nationwide sensitivity.[286][299] Colombian pictures used to be marked by the appearance of the daguerreotype. Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros used to be who introduced the daguerreotype route of to Colombia in 1841. The Piloto public library has Latin The USA’s perfect archive of negatives, containing 1.7 million vintage pictures keeping Colombia 1848 except 2005.[300][301] The Colombian press has promoted the work of the cartoonists. In unique a long time, fanzines, cyber web and honest publishers agree with been main to the affirm of the droll in Colombia.[302][303][304] Structure See furthermore: Muisca structure Within the route of the conditions, there agree with been a diversity of architectural kinds, from those of indigenous peoples to novel ones, passing thru colonial (protection force and religious), Republican, transition and current kinds.[305] Musty habitation areas, longhouses, slash terraces, roads because the Inca street machine, cemeteries, hypogeums and necropolises are all part of the architectural heritage of indigenous peoples.[306] Some prominent indigenous structures are the preceramic and ceramic archaeological keep of residing of Tequendama,[307]Tierradentro (a park that comes with the largest focus of pre-Columbian enormous shaft tombs with aspect chambers),[308] the largest sequence of non secular monuments and megalithic sculptures in South The USA, located in San Agustín, Huila.[288][309]Lost city (an archaeological keep of residing with a chain of terraces carved into the mountainside, a win of tiled roads and plenty of circular plazas) and furthermore stand out the optimistic villages primarily constructed with stone, wood, cane and dirt.[310] Guatavita La Nueva, an architectural keep of residing with colonial and neo-Spanish aspects Structure at some level of the interval of conquest and colonization is primarily derived of adapting European kinds to native prerequisites, and Spanish have an effect on, especially Andalusian and Extremaduran, could well well presumably furthermore be without complications seen.[311] When Europeans founded cities two things agree with been making concurrently: the dimensioning of geometrical role (city sq., street), and the positioning of a tangible level of orientation.[312] The construction of forts used to be total at some level of the Caribbean and in some cities of the internal, thanks to the dangers that represented the hostile indigenous groups and the pirates who roamed the seas.[313] Church buildings, chapels, schools, and hospitals belonging to religious orders cause a suited urban affect.[314]Baroque structure is aged in protection force structures and public areas.[315] Marcelino Arroyo, Francisco José de Caldas and Domingo de Petrés agree with been optimistic representatives of neo-classical structure.[314] The National Capitol is a suited consultant of romanticism.[316] Picket is broadly aged in doors, windows, railings and ceilings at some level of the colonization of Antioquia. The Caribbean structure acquires a solid Arabic have an effect on.[317] The Teatro Colón in Bogotá is a lavish instance of structure from the Nineteenth century.[318] The quintas properties with innovations within the volumetric conception are one of the well-known appropriate examples of the Republican structure; the Republican motion within town mad in regards to the invent of three kinds of areas: parks with forests, microscopic urban parks and avenues and the Gothic fashion used to be most in most cases aged for the invent of church buildings.[319] Deco fashion, current neoclassicism, eclecticism folklorist and art work deco decorative resources considerably influenced the structure of Colombia, especially at some level of the transition interval.[320]Modernism contributed with unique construction technologies and unique offers (steel, bolstered concrete, glass and synthetic offers) and the topology structure and lightened slabs machine furthermore agree with a suited have an effect on.[321] The most influential architects of the novel circulation agree with been Rogelio Salmona and Fernando Martínez Sanabria.[322] The novel structure of Colombia is designed to give greater importance to the offers, this structure takes into memoir the pronounce pure and synthetic geographies and is furthermore an structure that appeals to the senses.[323] The conservation of the architectural and concrete heritage of Colombia has been promoted in unique years.[324] Tune Colombian tiple Colombian tune blends European-influenced guitar and tune construction with optimistic gaita flutes and percussion devices from the indigenous inhabitants, whereas its percussion construction and dance kinds come from Africa. Colombia has a various and dynamic musical atmosphere.[325] Musicians, composers, tune producers and singers from Colombia are known internationally similar to Shakira, Juanes, Carlos Vives and others.[326] Guillermo Uribe Holguín, the largest cultural decide within the National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia, Luis Antonio Calvo and Blas Emilio Atehortúa are one of the well-known perfect exponents of the art work tune.[327] The Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra is surely one of the well-known crucial tantalizing orchestras in Colombia.[328] Caribbean tune has many shiny rhythms, similar to cumbia (it’s played by the maracas, the drums, the gaitas and guacharaca), porro (it is a dull however happy rhythm), mapalé (with its speedy rhythm and steady clapping) and the “vallenato”, which originated within the northern part of the Caribbean cruise (the rhythm is primarily played by the caja, the guacharaca, and accordion).[329][330][331][332][333] The tune from the Pacific cruise, such because the currulao is characterised by its solid use of drums (devices such because the native marimba, the conunos, the bass drum, the aspect drum and the cuatro guasas or tubular rattle). A truly valuable rhythm of the south role of the Pacific cruise is the contradanza (it’s aged in dance reveals, as a results of the placing colours of the costumes).[329][334][335] Marimba tune, veteran chants and dances from the Colombia South Pacific role are on UNESCO’s Advisor Checklist of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.[336][337][338] Well-known musical rhythms of the Andean Achieve are the danza (dance of Andean folklore setting up from the transformation of the European contredance), the bambuco (it’s played with guitar, tiple[339] and mandolin, the rhythm is danced by couples), the pasillo (a rhythm inspired by the Austrian waltz and the Colombian “danza”, the lyrics agree with been peaceable by effectively-identified poets), the rajaleña (it’s performed by people who play the queco flute, the tiple, the carangano and the drum), the sanjuanero (it originated in Tolima and Huila Departments, the rhythm is happy and speedy).[340][341][342][343][344] Except for these veteran rhythms, salsa tune has spread at some level of the country, and town of Cali is regarded as by many salsa singers to be ‘The New Salsa Capital of the World’.[329][345][346] The devices that distinguish the tune of the Eastern Plains are the harp, the cuatro (a fabricate of four-stringed guitar) and maracas. Well-known rhythms of this role are the joropo (a speedy rhythm and there could be furthermore tapping as a results of its flamenco ancestry) and the galeron (it’s heard lots whereas cowboys are working).[329][347][348][349] The tune of the Amazon role is strongly influenced by the indigenous religious practices. One of the crucial musical devices aged are the manguaré (a musical instrument of ceremonial sort, consisting of a pair of optimistic cylindrical drums), the quena (melodic instrument), the rondador, the congas, bells, and different kinds of flutes.[350][351][352] The tune of the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina is in total accompanied by a mandolin, a bathe-bass, a jawbone, a guitar and maracas. Some current archipelago rhythms are the Schottische, the Calypso, the Polka and the Mento.[353][354] Standard custom The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá is surely one of the well-known perfect theater gala’s on the planet.[355] Theater used to be launched in Colombia at some level of the Spanish colonization in 1550 thru zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Custom and a substitute of non-public and articulate owned organizations. The Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá is the cultural tournament of the absolute top importance in Colombia and surely one of the well-known perfect theater gala’s on the planet.[355] Rather a couple of well-known theater events are: The Festival of Puppet The Fanfare (Medellín), The Manizales Theater Festival, The Caribbean Theatre Festival (Santa Marta) and The Art Festival of Standard Custom “Cultural Invasion” (Bogotá).[356][357][358] Even if the Colombian cinema is younger as an substitute, more nowadays the film substitute used to be rising with toughen from the Movie Act passed in 2003.[360] Many film gala’s engage role in Colombia, however the 2 most well-known are the Cartagena Movie Festival, which is the oldest film competition in Latin The USA, and the Bogotá Movie Festival.[359][361][362] Some well-known nationwide circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador. Tv in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three articulate-owned TV networks with nationwide protection, as effectively as six regional TV networks and dozens of native TV stations. Deepest channels, RCN and Caracol are the absolute top-rated. The regional channels and regional newspapers duvet a department or more and its recount material is made in these pronounce areas.[363][364][365] Colombia has three main nationwide radio networks: Radiodifusora Nacional de Colombia, a articulate-scuttle nationwide radio; Caracol Radio and RCN Radio, privately owned networks with a entire bunch of friends. There are different nationwide networks, including Cadena Extensive, Todelar, and Colmundo. Many a entire bunch of radio stations are registered with the Ministry of Knowledge Know-how and Communications.[366] Delicacies Foremost article: Colombian delicacies Sancocho de gallina criolla is a veteran soup in Colombia. Colombia’s varied delicacies is influenced by its various fauna and flora as effectively because the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups. Colombian dishes and substances vary broadly by role. One of the crucial most in fashion substances are: cereals similar to rice and maize; tubers similar to potato and cassava; varied legumes; meats, including crimson meat, chicken, pork and goat; fish; and seafood.[367][368] Colombia delicacies furthermore aspects a diversity of tropical fruits similar to cape gooseberry, feijoa, arazá, dragon fruit, mangostino, granadilla, papaya, guava, mora (blackberry), lulo, soursop and passionfruit.[369] Colombia is surely one of the well-known arena’s perfect patrons of fruit juices.[370] Amongst the most consultant appetizers and soups are patacones (fried green plantains), sancocho de gallina (chicken soup with root vegetables) and ajiaco (potato and corn soup). Advisor snacks and breads are pandebono, arepas (corn cakes), aborrajados (fried sweet plantains with cheese), torta de choclo, empanadas and almojábanas. Advisor main courses are bandeja paisa, lechona tolimense, mamona, tamales and fish dishes (similar to arroz de lisa), especially in coastal areas the keep kibbeh, suero, costeño cheese and carimañolas are furthermore eaten. Advisor aspect dishes are papas chorreadas (potatoes with cheese), remolachas rellenas con huevo duro (beets stuffed with annoying-boiled egg) and arroz con coco (coconut rice).[369][367]Natural food is a unique pattern in broad cities, even supposing on the entire at some level of the country the fruits and veggies are very pure and novel.[371][372] Advisor truffles are buñuelos, natillas, Maria Luisa cake, bocadillo produced from guayaba (guava jelly), cocadas (coconut balls), casquitos de guayaba (candied guava peels), torta de natas, obleas, flan de mango, roscón, milhoja, manjar blanco, dulce de feijoa, dulce de papayuela, torta de mojicón, and esponjado de curuba. Identical old sauces (salsas) are hogao (tomato and onion sauce) and Colombian-fashion ají.[369][367] Some consultant beverages are coffee (Tinto), champús, cholado, lulada, avena colombiana, sugarcane juice, aguapanela, aguardiente, scorching chocolate and novel fruit juices (in most cases made with water or milk).[369][367] Sports Foremost article: Sport in Colombia Tejo is Colombia’s nationwide sport and is a body of workers sport that entails launching projectiles to hit a purpose.[373] But of all sports in Colombia, soccer is the most smartly-preferred. Colombia used to be the champion of the 2001 Copa América, in which they space a unique memoir of being undefeated, conceding no targets and winning every match. Curiously, Colombia has been awarded “mover of the 365 days” twice.[374] Colombia is a mecca for roller skaters. The nationwide body of workers is a perennial powerhouse on the World Roller Velocity Skating Championships.[375] Colombia has historically been very accurate in cycling and a quantity of Colombian cyclists agree with triumphed in main competitions of cycling.[376] In baseball, one other sport rooted within the Caribbean Waft, Colombia used to be world amateur champion in 1947 and 1965. Baseball is current within the Caribbean, primarily within the cities Cartagena, Barranquilla and Santa Marta. Of those cities agree with come accurate avid gamers delight in: Orlando Cabrera, Edgar Rentería[377] who used to be champion of the World Series in 1997 and 2010, and others who agree with played in Foremost League Baseball.[378] Boxing is surely one of the well-known sports that more world champions has produced for Colombia.[379][380] Motorsports furthermore occupies the largest role within the sporting preferences of Colombians; Juan Pablo Montoya is a scuttle automotive driver identified for winning 7 Formula One events. Colombia furthermore has excelled in sports similar to BMX, judo, taking pictures sport, taekwondo, wrestling, high diving and athletics, furthermore has a lengthy custom in weightlifting and bowling.[381][382][383] Successfully being Colombia leads the annual ranking of the suitable clinics and hospitals in Latin The USA.[384] The overall lifestyles expectancy in Colombia at delivery is Seventy four.eight years (71.2 years for males and Seventy eight.4 years for females).[240] Successfully being standards in Colombia agree with improved very great for the explanation that Eighties, healthcare reforms agree with resulted in the broad enhancements within the healthcare systems of the country. Even if this unique machine has widened inhabitants protection by the social and effectively being security machine from 21% (pre-1993) to ninety six% in 2012,[385] effectively being disparities persist. Through effectively being tourism, many folk from over the arena tear from their locations of role to different international locations within the hunt for medical treatment and the points of interest within the international locations visited. Colombia is projected as surely one of Latin The USA’s main destinations in terms of effectively being tourism attributable to the high quality of its effectively being care mavens, a accurate substitute of institutions dedicated to effectively being, and an broad stock of pure and architectural sites. Cities similar to Bogotá, Cali, Medellín and Bucaramanga are the most visited in cardiology procedures, neurology, dental remedies, stem cell treatment, ENT, ophthalmology and joint replacements among others for the medical products and companies of prime of the variety.[386] A respect conducted by América Economía magazine ranked 21 Colombian effectively being care institutions among the tip forty four in Latin The USA, amounting to 48 percent of the entire.[384] Training Mario Laserna Constructing – College of Los Andes The educational expertise of many Colombian younger people begins with attendance at a preschool academy except age five (Educación preescolar). Traditional training (Educación básica) is obligatory by regulation.[387] It has two phases: Foremost in fashion training (Educación básica primaria) which works from first to fifth grade – younger people from six to ten years used, and Secondary in fashion training (Educación básica secundaria), which works from sixth to ninth grade. Traditional training is adopted by Center vocational training (Educación media vocacional) that contains the tenth and eleventh grades. It could well well presumably agree with different vocational practicing modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) in step with the curriculum adopted by every college.[388] After the a success completion of the general in fashion and heart training years, a high-college diploma is awarded. The high-college graduate is identified as a bachiller, on memoir of secondary in fashion college and heart training are historically regarded as together as a unit known as bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). College students in their final 365 days of heart training engage the ICFES take a look at (now renamed Saber Eleven) in talk in self belief to manufacture entry to greater training (Educación superior). This greater training contains undergraduate expert reviews, technical, technological and intermediate expert training, and put up-graduate reviews. Technical expert institutions of Larger Training are furthermore opened to college students holder of a qualification in Arts and Commercial. This qualification is in total awarded by the SENA after a two years curriculum.[389] Bachilleres (high-college graduates) could well well presumably enter into a expert undergraduate profession program equipped by a university; these programs final as a lot as five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate expert training, and put up-graduate reviews), whilst great to 6 to seven years for some careers, similar to medication. In Colombia, there’s no longer an establishment similar to college; college students flow straight into a profession program at a university or any different academic establishment to attain a expert, technical or technological title. As soon as graduated from the university, people are granted a (expert, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the profession they agree with chosen. For some expert profession programs, college students are required to engage the Saber-Pro take a look at, in their final 365 days of undergraduate academic training.[388] Public spending on training as a percentage of nasty domestic product in 2015 used to be 4.49%. This represented 15.05% of total government expenditure. The main and secondary nasty enrolment ratios stood at 113.56% and ninety eight.09% respectively. School-lifestyles expectancy used to be 14.Forty two years. A total of 94.Fifty eight% of the inhabitants faded 15 and older agree with been recorded as literate, including ninety eight.66% of those faded 15–24.[242] See furthermore Index of Colombia-linked articles Account for of Colombia Notes ^ IPA transcription of “República de Colombia”: [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]. ^ Balboa is finest identified for being the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean in 1513, which he known as Mar del Sur (or “Sea of the South”) and would facilitate Spanish exploration and settlement of South The USA. ^ A royal decree of 1713 licensed the legality of Palenque de San Basilio founded by runaway slaves as a refuge within the seventeenth century. The people of San Basilio fought against slavery, thereby giving rise to the first free role within the Americas.[53] Its main leader used to be Benkos Biohó, born in West Africa.[54] The cultural role of Palenque de San Basilio used to be declared in 2005 as a “Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity” by UNESCO. ^ Peter Claver used to be a Spanish who traveled to Cartagena in 1610. On 19 March 1616 he used to be ordained as a Jesuit priest. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the lifestyles and the honour of the slaves. After four years of sickness, Peter died in 1654. Two products and companies agree with been held for him: the official funeral, and a separate memorial attended by his African friends. In 1888, the Roman Catholic Church canonized Peter. He’s now Diagnosed because the patron saint of African-Americans, slaves and the Republic of Colombia.[55][56] ^ Héctor Abad used to be a prominent medical doctor, university professor, and human rights leader whose holistic vision of healthcare led him to discovered the Colombian National School of Public Successfully being. The rising violence and human rights abuses of the Seventies and Eighties led him to wrestle for social justice in his neighborhood, however his political views put him at odds with those in vitality and Abad used to be killed in 1987. His son stated he discovered something from his father that the murderers sort no longer know attain: to use phrases to pronounce the reality – a truth that will final longer than their lie.[106][107] ^ Javier de Nicoló used to be an Italian-born salesian priest who developed a program that has equipped more than Forty,000 kids the finding out and appropriate toughen they main to alter into productive electorate. De Nicoló arrived in Colombia a 365 days after the bogotazo, and he knew first-hand what wrestle did to households. Within the route of World War II, Javier pursued his vocational practicing in a slaughter- home, after bombing raids destroyed his high college.[108] References ^ a b c “visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos” (PDF). Censo Overall 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013. ^ a b c Bushnell, David; Hudson, Rex A. (2010). The Society and Its Atmosphere; Colombia: a country respect (PDF). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. pp. 87, ninety two. ^ a b c “Intelligent clock”. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Retrieved sixteen June 2017. ^ a b c d e “World Economic Outlook Database: Colombia”. World Monetary Fund. April 2017. Retrieved 17 Also can 2017. ^ a b “socio-economic insurance policies” (PDF). Retrieved 24 March 2017. ^ “2016 Human Vogue Report” (PDF). 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Retrieved 9 March 2014. ^ Steve Slater (27 April 2010). “After BRICs, scrutinize to CIVETS for affirm – HSBC CEO”. Reuters. ^ a b “Cuentas Trimestrales – Producto Interno Bruto (PIB)” (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 April 2017. ^ a b “Colombia: Employees Concluding Assertion of the 2017 Article IV Mission”. Retrieved 17 March 2017. ^ a b Carlos Restrepo Piedrahita (February 1992). “El nombre “Colombia”, El único país que lleva el nombre del Descubrimiento”. Revista Credencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 February 2008. ^ Correal, Urrego G. (1993). “Nuevas evidencias culturales pleistocenicas y megafauna en Colombia”. Boletin de Arqueologia (eight): three–Thirteen. ^ Hoopes, John (1994). “Ford Revisited: A Necessary Assessment of the Chronology and Relationships of the Earliest Ceramic Complexes within the New World, 6000-1500 B.C. (1994)”. 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ISBN 9780271029368. ^ Uribe, Jaime Jaramillo. “Perfil histórico de Bogotá.” Historia crítica 1 (1989): 1. ^ Silvia Padilla Altamirano (1977). La encomienda en Popayán: tres estudios (in Spanish). Editorial CSIC – CSIC Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9788400036126. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci (2012). El dorado en el pantano (in Spanish). Marcial Pons Historia. ISBN 9788492820658. ^ Ramírez, Natalia; Gutiérrez, Germán (2010). “Félix de Azara: Observaciones conductuales en su viaje por el Virreinato del Río de la Plata”. Revista de historia de la psicología. 31 (4): fifty two–53. ^ “El Dorado Tale Snared Sir Walter Raleigh”. National Geographic. ^ “La Conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada: la interpretación de los siete mitos (III) – RESTALL, Matthew: Los siete mitos de la conquista española, Barcelona, 2004” (in Spanish). ^ Jorge Augusto Gamboa M. “Las sociedades indígenas del Nuevo Reino de Granada bajo el dominio español” (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia. ^ “Las plantas medicinales en la época de la colonia y de la independencia” (PDF) (in Spanish). ^ a b Mayorga, Fernando (2002). “La propiedad de tierras en la Colonia: Mercedes, composición de títulos y resguardos indígenas” (in Spanish). Revista Credencial Historia – ^ a b Germán Colmenares. “Historia económica y órdenes de magnitud, Capítulo 1: La Formación de la Economía Colonial (1500–1740).” (in Spanish). ^ a b Margarita González. “La política económica virreinal en el Nuevo Reino de Granada: 1750–1810” (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the normal on eight April 2014. ^ Domingo, M. C. (2004). Alonso de Santa Cruz, cartógrafo y fabricante de instrumentos náuticos de la Casa de Contratación. Revista complutense de historia de América, (30), 7–Forty. ^ John Huxtable Elliott (2007). Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in The USA, 1492–1830. Yale College Press. pp. 124–a hundred twenty five. ISBN 9780300123999. ^ “Laws VIII (“Royal Audiencia and Chancery of Santa Fe within the New Kingdom of Granada”) of Title XV (“Of the Royal Audiencias and Chanceries of the Indies”) of Guide II” (PDF). Archived from the normal (PDF) on 29 June 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. ^ Fernando Mayorga García; Juana M. Marín Leoz; Adelaida Sourdis Nájera. “El patrimonio documental de Bogotá, Siglos XVI – XIX: Instituciones y Archivos” (PDF). Subdirección Imprenta Distrital – D.D.D.I. ISBN 978-958-717-064-1. Archived from the normal (PDF) on 7 April 2014. ^ Julián Bautista Ruiz Rivera (1975). Encomienda y mita en Nueva Granada en el siglo XVII. Editorial CSIC – CSIC Press. pp. XXI–XXII. ISBN 9788400041762. ^ a b Jorge Cerdá Crespo (2010). Conflictos coloniales: la guerra de los nueve años 1739–1748 (in Spanish). Universidad de Alicante. ISBN 9788497171274. ^ Génesis y desarrollo de la esclavitud en Colombia siglos XVI y XVII (in Spanish). Universidad del Valle. 2005. ISBN 9789586703383. ^ Alvaro Gärtner (2005). Los místeres de las minas: crónica de la colonia europea más grande de Colombia en el siglo XIX, surgida alrededor de las minas de Marmato, Supía y Riosucio. Universidad de Caldas. ISBN 9789588231426. ^ Yves Moñino; Armin Schwegler (2002). Palenque, Cartagena y Afro-Caribe: historia y lengua. Walter de Gruyter. p. VII – IX, 21–35. ISBN 9783110960228. ^ “Palenque de San Basilio” (PDF) (in Spanish). ^ Proceso de beatificación y canonización de San Pedro Claver. Edición de 1696. Traducción del latín y del italiano, y notas de Anna María Splendiani y Tulio Aristizábal S. J. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Universidad Católica del Táchira. 2002. ^ Valtierra, Ángel. 1964. San Pedro Claver, el santo que liberó una raza. ^ “La esclavitud negra en la América española” (in Spanish). 2003. ^ Rivera, Julián Bautista Ruiz (1997). “Reformismo native en el nuevo Reino de Granada. Temas americanistas N° Thirteen” (PDF) (in Spanish). pp. 80–ninety eight. ^ Jaime U. Jaramillo; Adolfo R. Maisel; Miguel M. Urrutia (1997). Transferring Wealth and Energy from the Aged to the New World: Monetary and Fiscal Institutions within the 17th In the course of the Nineteenth Centuries – Chapter 12 (PDF). Cambridge College Press. ISBN 9780521027274. ^ Greshko, Michael. “Did This Spanish Shipwreck Change the Route of Historical previous?”. National Geographic. ^ “José Celestino Mutis in New Granada: A lifestyles on the provider of an Expedition (1760–1808)”. True Jardín Botánico. ^ Angela Perez-Mejia (2004). A Geography of Laborious Events: Narratives about Hasten to South The USA, 1780–1849 – Segment I: The student and the baron: Voyage of the right sciences. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780791460139. ^ John Wilton Appel (1994). Francisco José de Caldas: A Scientist at Work in Nueva Granada. American Philosophical Society. ISBN 9780871698452. ^ McFarlane, Anthony. “El colapso de la autoridad española y la génesis de la independencia en la Nueva Granada.” Desarrollo y Sociedad 7 (1982): ninety 9–one hundred twenty. ^ Rodriguez Gómez, Juan Camilo. “La independencia del Socorro en la génesis de la emancipación colombiana.” (in Spanish). ^ Gutiérrez Ardila, Daniel (2011). “Colombia and Haití: Historical previous of a Misunderstanding (1819–1831)” (in Spanish). Secuencia Eighty one. pp. 67–93. ^ Gutiérrez Escudero, Antonio. “Un precursor de la emancipación americana: Antonio Nariño y Álvarez.” (PDF) (in Spanish). Araucaria. Revista Iberoamericana de Filosofía, Política y Humanidades eight.Thirteen (2005). pp. 205–220. ^ Sourdis Nájera, Adelaida. “Independencia del Caribe colombiano 1810–1821” (in Spanish). Revista Credencial Historia – Edición 242. ^ Martínez Garnica, Armandao (2010). “Confederación de las Provincias Unidas de la Nueva Granada” (in Spanish). Revista Credencial Historia – Edición 244. ^ “Acta de la Federación de las Provincias Unidas de Nueva Granada” (in Spanish). 1811. ^ Ocampo López, Javier (1998). La patria boba. Cuadernillos de historia. Panamericana Editorial. ISBN 9789583005336. ^ “Morillo y la reconquista, 1816-1819” (in Spanish). ^ Ocampo López, Javier (2006). Historia ilustrada de Colombia – Capítulo VI (in Spanish). Plaza y Janes Editores Colombia sa. ISBN 9789581403707. ^ Cartagena de Indias en la independencia (PDF). Banco de la República. 2011. ^ “Cronología de las independencias americanas” (in Spanish). ^ Gutiérrez Ramos, Jairo (2008). “La Constitución de Cádiz en la Provincia de Pasto, Virreinato de Nueva Granada, 1812–1822.” (in Spanish). Revista de Indias sixty eight, no. 242. p. 222. ^ Alfaro Pareja; Francisco José (2013). La Independencia de Venezuela relatada en clave de paz: las regulaciones pacíficas entre patriotas y realistas (1810–1846). (PDF) (in Spanish). ^ Alexander Walker (1822). (Gran) Colombia, relación geográfica, topográfica, agrícola, comercial y política de este país: Adaptada para todo lector en total y para el comerciante y colono en pronounce, Volume 1 (in Spanish). Banco de la República. ^ Sosa Abella, Guillermo (2009). “Los ciudadanos en la Constitución de Cúcuta – Citizenship within the Constitution of Cúcuta” (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Colombiano de Antropología e Historia (icanh). ^ Mollien, Gaspard-Théodore, conde de, 1796–1872. “El viaje de Gaspard-Théodore Mollien por la República de Colombia en 1823. CAPÍTULO IX” (in Spanish). Biblioteca Digital del Banco de la República. ^ “Avatares de una Joven República – 2. La Constitución de Cúcuta” (in Spanish). Universidad de Antioquia. ^ a b Uribe, Jaime Jaramillo (1985). “”Etapas y sentido de la historia de Colombia.” Colombia hoy” (PDF) (in Spanish). Santa Fe de Bogotá : Presidencia de la República. ^ a b Blanco Blanco, Jacqueline (2007). “De la gran Colombia a la Nueva Granada, contexto histórico-político de la transición constitucional” (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. ^ a b Edgar Arana. “Historia Constitucional Colombiana” (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad Libre Seccional Pereira. ^ Juan Fernando Londoño (2009). “Partidos políticos y mediate tanks en Colombia” (PDF) (in Spanish). World Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. p. 129. ISBN 9789185724734. ^ Aguilera, Miguel (1965). La Legislación y el derecho en Colombia. Historia extensa de Colombia. 14. Bogotá: Lemer. pp. 428–442. ^ Restrepo, Eduardo (2006). “Abolitionist arguments in Colombia” (in Spanish). História Unisinos. pp. 293–306. ^ “Constituciones que han existido en Colombia” (in Spanish). Banco de la República. ^ Gonzalo España (2013). El país que se hizo a tiros (in Spanish). Penguin Random Dwelling Grupo Editorial Colombia. ISBN 9789588613901. ^ Beluche, Olmedo (2003). “The accurate history of the separation of 1903 – La verdadera historia de la separación de 1903” (PDF) (in Spanish). ARTICSA. ^ “El tratado Urrutia-Thomson. Dificultades de política interna y exterior retrasaron siete años su ratificación” (in Spanish). Revista Credencial Historia. 2003. ^ Atehortúa Cruz; Adolfo León (2014). “El conflicto Colombo-Peruano – Apuntes acerca de su desarrollo e importancia histórica”. Historia y Espacio (in Spanish). 29: fifty one–Seventy eight. ^ Alape, Arturo (1983). “El Bogotazo: Memorias Del Olvido” (in Spanish). Fundación Universidad Central. ^ Braun, Herbert (1987). “Mataron a Gaitán: vida pública y violencia urbana en Colombia” (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Centro Editorial. ISBN 9789581700066. ^ Charles Bergquist; David J. Robinson (1997–2005). “Colombia”. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2005. Microsoft Company. Archived from the normal on 1 November 2009. 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The USA Economia magazine. Retrieved 9 June 2017. ^ “Ministra de Salud dice que la cobertura en este sector subió al ninety six%” (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 August 2013. ^ “Colombia Clinical Tourism”. Retrieved eight March 2014. ^ Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title II – Regarding rights, ensures, and responsibilities – Chapter 2 – Regarding social, economic and cultural rights – Article 67) ^ a b “Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo”. 29 June 2007. Archived from the normal on 29 June 2007. ^ “UNESCO-UNEVOC World TVET Database”. Exterior hyperlinks Overall files Colombia at Encyclopædia Britannica Colombia at UCB Libraries GovPubs Colombia at DMOZ “Colombia”. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Company. Key Vogue Forecasts for Colombia from World Futures Official funding portal Official Colombia Tourism Web keep of residing See Spanish in Colombia (in Spanish) National Administrative Department of Statistics Authorities (in Spanish) Colombia Online Authorities web recount online Custom (in Spanish) Ministry of Custom Geography Wikimedia Atlas of Colombia (in Spanish) National parks of Colombia

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July 26, 2020

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